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General Science and Engineering Indicators
R&D Investment Patterns
S&E Workforce Development
Average Annual Growth Rates of S&E Occupations v. All Workers
Number of Degrees Awarded by S&E Field at U.S. Colleges and Universities
Freshmen Intending S&E Major by Field
Knowledge Output

Selected Education Indicators
High School Completion Patterns
High School Teachers
Higher Education Enrollments

Selected Global Marketplace Indicators


Since 1960, the U.S. science and engineering workforce has grown faster than the full workforce.

Why is this indicator important?

  • A growing S&E workforce is an indicator of increased capacity for innovation.

Key Observations

  • S&E employment grew at an average annual rate of 3.6% between 1990 and 2000, compared with an average annual rate of 1.1% for the U.S. workforce as a whole.

Related Discussion

  • Today, S&E workers make up approximately 4% of the total U.S. civilian labor force, up from 2.6% in 1983.
  • Growth in the S&E workforce in the United States was made possible by three factors:
    (1) Increases in S&E degrees earned by both native and foreign-born students,
    (2) Both temporary and permanent migration to the United States of those with foreign S&E education, and
    (3) The relatively small number of scientists and engineers old enough to retire (SEI 2008 Chapter 3).