Chapter 3 | Science and Engineering Labor Force
European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development data on the EU include all 28 nations.
Involuntarily out-of-field (IOF) employment: Employment in a job not related to the field of one’s highest degree because a job in that field was not available. The IOF rate is the proportion of all employed individuals who report IOF employment.
Labor force: A subset of the population that includes both those who are employed and those who are not working but seeking work (unemployed); other individuals are not considered to be in the labor force.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 34 countries headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. Among its many activities, the OECD compiles social, economic, and science and technology statistics for all member and selected nonmember countries.
Postdoc: A temporary position awarded in academia, industry, government, or a nonprofit organization, primarily for gaining additional education and training in research after completion of a doctorate.
Stay rate: The proportion of foreign recipients of U.S. S&E doctorates who stay in the United States after receiving their doctorate.
Workforce: A subset of the labor force that includes only employed individuals.
Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations
ACS: American Community Survey
BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics
CPS: Current Population Survey
ECDS: Early Career Doctorates Survey
EU: European Union
FedScope: Federal Human Resources Data
FY: fiscal year
GED: General Equivalency Diploma
GERD: gross domestic expenditures on R&D
HHS: Department of Health and Human Services
IOF: involuntarily out-of-field
IPUMS: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series
NAICS: North American Industry Classification System
NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
nec: not elsewhere classified
NECTA: New England City and Town Area
NSB: National Science Board
NSCG: National Survey of College Graduates
NSF: National Science Foundation
NSRCG: National Survey of Recent College Graduates
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OES: Occupational Employment Statistics
OPM: Office of Personnel Management
OPT: optional practical training
PPP: purchasing power parity
R&D: research and development
S&E: science and engineering
S&T: science and technology
SDR: Survey of Doctorate Recipients
SED: Survey of Earned Doctorates
SEH: science, engineering, and health
SESTAT: Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System
SET: science, engineering, and technology
SOC: Standard Occupational Classification
STEM: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
USCIS: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services