European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, data on the EU include all 28 nations.

Federally funded research and development center (FFRDC): R&D-performing organizations that are exclusively or substantially financed by the federal government, to meet a particular R&D objective or, in some instances, to provide major facilities at universities for research and associated training purposes. Each FFRDC is administered by an industrial firm, a university, or a nonprofit institution.

Innovation: The implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service) or process, a new marketing method, or a new organization method in business practices, workplace organization, or external relations (OECD/Eurostat 2005).

Intangibles:Nonphysical factors that contribute to or are used to produce goods or services, or are intended to generate future benefits to the entities that control their use (Blair and Wallman 2001).

Mask works:A series of related images used as patterns in the construction of semiconductor chips.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 34 countries, headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Among its many activities, OECD compiles social, economic, and S&T statistics for all member and selected nonmember countries.

Technology transfer: The process by which technology or knowledge developed in one place or for one purpose is applied and exploited in another place for some other purpose. In the federal setting, technology transfer is the process by which existing knowledge, facilities, or capabilities developed under federal R&D funding are used to fulfill public and private needs.

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACS: American Competitiveness Survey

AFFOA: Advanced Functional Fabrics of America

ARM: Advanced Robotics for Manufacturing

ARMI: Advanced Regenerative Manufacturing Institute

ARPA-E: Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy

AUTM: Association of University Technology Managers

BEA: Bureau of Economic Analysis

BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics

BRDIS: Business R&D and Innovation Survey

CEMI: Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

CIS: Community Innovation Survey

CRADA: cooperative R&D agreement

DHS: Department of Homeland Security

DMDII: Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute

DOC: Department of Commerce

DOD: Department of Defense

DOE: Department of Energy

ED: Department of Education

EU: European Union

FFRDC: federally funded research and development center

FLC: Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer

FY: fiscal year

GDP: gross domestic product

GPT: general purpose technology

HHS: Department of Health and Human Services

IACMI: Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation

ICT: information and communications technologies

IPC: International Patent Classification

IPO: initial public offering

ISO: International Organization for Standardization

IT: information technology

IUCRC: Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers Program

LIFT: Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow

MEP: Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership

MFP: multifactor productivity

NAICS: North American Industry Classification System

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIIMBL: National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology

NPL: nonpatent literature

NSF: National Science Foundation

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

R&D: research and development

RAPID: Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification Deployment

REMADE: Reducing Embodied-energy and Decreasing Emissions in Materials Manufacturing

ROW: rest of world

S&E: science and engineering

S&T: science and technology

SBA: U.S. Small Business Administration

SBIR: Small Business Innovation Research

SEP: standard essential patent

STTR: Small Business Technology Transfer

TFP: total factor productivity

UK: United Kingdom

USDA: Department of Agriculture

USPTO: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization