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Applied research. Systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding to meet a specific, recognized need.

Basic research. Systematic study to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without specific applications in mind.

Development. Systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including the design and development of prototypes and processes.

GDP. Gross domestic product. The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country within a given period of time.

European Union (EU). As of June 2013, the EU comprised 27 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Croatia joined the EU in July 2013. Unless otherwise noted, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development data on the EU include all 28 members; data on the EU from other sources are limited to the 27 nations that were members as of June 2013.

NCSES. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation.

NSB. National Science Board.

NSF. National Science Foundation.

Natural sciences. Agricultural, biological, computer, and physical sciences (including earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences), and mathematics.

R&D. Research and development.

R&D intensity. R&D as a proportion of gross domestic product.

Research university. The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education considers doctorate-granting universities that award at least 20 doctoral degrees per year to be research universities. The 2010 Carnegie Classification includes three subgroups of research universities based on the level of research activity: very high research activity (108 institutions), high research activity (99 institutions), and doctoral/research universities (90 institutions).

S&E. Science and engineering.

S&E occupations. Biological, agricultural, and environmental life scientists; computer and mathematical scientists; physical scientists; social scientists; and engineers. S&E managers and technicians, and health-related occupations are categorized as S&E-related and are not included in S&E.

S&T. Science and technology.

SEI. Science and Engineering Indicators.

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