Table 4-2
Annual rates of growth in U.S. R&D expenditures, total and by performing sectors: 1991–2011
(Percent)
 
Longer-term trend   Most recent years
Expenditures and gross domestic product 1991–2011  2001–11  2006–11  2008–09  2009–10  2010–11
 
Current dollars
Total R&D, all performers 5.0 4.3 3.8 -0.5 0.5 4.4
Business 4.8 3.8 3.5 -2.9 -1.2 5.4
Federal government 3.8 4.2 3.5 3.8 3.9 0.4
Federal intramurala 3.7 3.5 2.2 2.4 2.2 0.9
FFRDCs 4.0 5.5 6.0 6.3 7.0 -0.5
Universities and colleges 6.4 6.5 5.2 5.6 5.8 4.8
Other nonprofit organizations 6.9 4.8 4.5 10.0 1.6 -2.6
 
Gross domestic product 4.7 3.9 2.4 -2.5 4.2 3.9
 
Constant 2005 dollars
Total R&D, all performers 2.8 2.0 1.9 -1.5 -0.6 2.2
Business 2.7 1.5 1.6 -3.9 -2.3 3.2
Federal government 1.7 1.9 1.6 2.7 2.7 -1.7
Federal intramurala 1.6 1.2 0.3 1.3 1.0 -1.2
FFRDCs 1.9 3.2 4.0 5.2 5.8 -2.6
Universities and colleges 4.2 4.1 3.3 4.5 4.6 2.6
Other nonprofit organizations 4.7 2.5 2.5 8.9 0.5 -4.6
 
Gross domestic product 2.6 1.6 0.5 -3.5 3.0 1.7
 

FFRDC = federally funded R&D center.

Includes expenditures of federal intramural R&D and costs associated with administering extramural R&D.

NOTE: Longer-term trend rates are calculated as compound annual growth rates.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014