Table 4-1
U.S. R&D expenditures, by performing sector and source of funding: 2006–11
 
Sector 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
 
Current $millions
All performing sectors 352,567 379,681 406,610 404,697 406,708 424,413
Business 247,669 269,267 290,681 282,393 278,977 294,093
Federal government 41,611 44,133 45,649 47,363 48,939 49,394
Federal intramurala 28,240 29,859 29,839 30,560 31,217 31,505
FFRDCs 13,371 14,274 15,810 16,804 17,985 17,889
Industry administeredb 3,122 5,165 6,346 6,646 7,214 7,037
U&C administeredb 7,306 5,567 4,766 5,052 5,315 5,294
Nonprofit administered 2,943 3,543 4,698 5,106 5,457 5,558
Universities and colleges 48,951 51,149 53,917 56,939 60,235 63,102
Other nonprofit organizations 14,336 15,132 16,363 18,002 18,294 17,825
 
All funding sectors 352,567 379,681 406,610 404,697 406,708 424,413
Business 227,110 246,741 258,691 247,274 249,182 267,290
Federal government 101,558 106,858 119,423 127,467 126,962 125,686
Universities and colleges 10,076 10,833 11,640 11,884 11,990 12,488
Nonfederal government 3,182 3,438 3,706 3,808 3,782 3,832
Other nonprofit organizations 10,641 11,810 13,151 14,264 14,793 15,117
 
Constant 2005 $millions
All performing sectors 341,532 357,426 374,472 368,815 366,434 374,394
Business 239,917 253,484 267,706 257,355 251,351 259,433
Federal government 40,308 41,546 42,041 43,164 44,330 43,572
Federal intramurala 27,356 28,109 27,480 27,850 28,126 27,792
FFRDCs 12,953 13,438 14,560 15,314 16,204 15,780
Industry administeredb 3,024 4,862 5,844 6,057 6,499 6,207
U&C administeredb 7,078 5,241 4,389 4,604 4,789 4,670
Nonprofit administered 2,851 3,335 4,327 4,653 4,916 4,903
Universities and colleges 47,419 48,151 49,656 51,891 54,270 55,665
Other nonprofit organizations 13,888 14,245 15,070 16,406 16,482 15,724
 
All funding sectors 341,532 357,426 374,472 368,815 366,434 374,394
Business 220,002 232,278 238,244 225,349 224,506 235,788
Federal government 98,379 100,595 109,984 116,165 114,390 110,873
Universities and colleges 9,760 10,198 10,720 10,831 10,802 11,016
Nonfederal government 3,083 3,237 3,413 3,471 3,408 3,381
Other nonprofit organizations 10,308 11,118 12,111 12,999 13,328 13,335
 

FFRDC = federally funded R&D center; U&C = university and college.

a Includes expenditures of federal intramural R&D and costs associated with administering extramural R&D.
b Los Alamos National Laboratory (some $2 billion in annual R&D expenditures in recent years) became industry administered in June 2006; previously, it was U&C administered. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (more than $1 billion in annual R&D expenditures in recent years) became industry administered in October 2007; previously, it was U&C administered. These shifts in administration category are a main reason for the changes apparent in the R&D performer figures across 2006, 2007, and 2008.

NOTES: Data are based on annual reports by performers except for the nonprofit sector. Expenditure levels for academic and federal government performers are calendar-year approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures, the approximation is equal to 75% of the amount reported in same fiscal year plus 25% of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For academic expenditures, the respective percentages are 50% and 50%, because those fiscal years generally begin on 1 July instead of 1 October.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2014