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Chapter 5. Academic Research and Development


Academic doctoral S&E workforce: Includes those with a U.S. doctorate in an S&E field employed in 2- or 4-year colleges or universities in the following positions: full and associate professors (referred to as senior faculty); assistant professors and instructors (referred to as junior faculty); postdocs; other full-time positions such as lecturers, adjunct faculty, research associates, and administrators; and part-time positions of all kinds.

Academic institution: In the Expenditures and Funding for Academic R&D section of this chapter, an academic institution is generally defined as an institution that grants a bachelors' or higher degree in science or engineering and that has spent at least $150,000 for separately budgeted R&D in S&E within the fiscal year being measured. Elsewhere in the chapter, this term encompasses any accredited institution of higher education.

Underrepresented minority: Demographic category including blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives; groups considered to be underrepresented in academic institutions.