This figure illustrates the science and engineering topics that will enable innovation and advance fundamental understanding of future photosynthetic biorefineries.

Figure 2. Photosynthetic bio-refineries: enabling innovation through integration of fundamental science and engineering with systems-level analysis..

Cellular & molecular biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and manufacturing engineering are the foundational disciplines for enabling innovation and fundamental understanding of photosynthetic bio-refineries for fuels, chemicals, and bio-products in scalable biomanufacturing platforms.

The pathway from fundamentals to systems will embrace an integrated and multi-scale understanding of the inter-relationships between photosynthesis and energy-rich molecule biosynthesis at the cellular scale, and the transport phenomena underlying carbon dioxide and light delivery within photobioreactor systems at the process scale.

This figure appears in NSF 11-571, Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI)
1. Flexible Bioelectronics Systems (BioFlex)
2. Origami Design for Integration of Self-assembling Systems for Engineering Innovation (ODISSEI)
3. Photosynthetic Biorefineries (PSBR)