In this image, surface updates from the Microsoft Kinect 3-D camera are temporarily disabled in the augmented reality (AR) process, letting the water surfaces come to rest in the "Shaping Watersheds Interactive Sandbox." The Saint-Venant shallow water flow simulation is well-balanced, meaning that all surfaces will be completely flat, and completely still, once all residual wave energy dissipates due to viscosity and bed friction. Note the wave propagation and the eddies in the center lake, and the water lapping over into the upper lake, due to constant water influx from the stream down the side of the mountain. (Note: White spots are individual grains that are reflecting projector light directly into the camera.)
The AR sandbox was created by the University of California, Davis', Tahoe Environmental Research Center (TERC) and the UC-Davis W.M. Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) as part of the National Science Foundation-supported LakeViz3D project in which researchers create 3-D visualization applications to teach Earth science concepts. Partnering institutions include UC-Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science and the ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center in Burlington, Vt. [This is Image 14 in a series of 19 images showing the process involved in creating the AR sandbox from start to finish, and the end product in use. See Image 15.] (Date of Image: 2012-2013)
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The LakeViz3D project seeks to raise public awareness and increase understanding and stewardship of freshwater lake ecosystems and Earth science processes using immersive, 3-D visualizations of lake and watershed processes, supplemented by tabletop science activity stations that can be used, for example, in science centers and museums.
Among the activities developed by LakeViz3D is the "Shaping Watersheds Interactive Sandbox," a hands-on exhibit that combines a real sandbox with virtual topography and water, created using a closed loop of a Microsoft Kinect 3-D camera, powerful simulation and visualization software, and a data projector. Users create topography models by shaping real sand, which is then augmented in real time by an elevation color map, topographic contour lines and simulated water. The system teaches geographic, geologic and hydrologic concepts such as how to read a topography map, and the meaning of contour lines, watersheds, catchment areas, levees, etc.
In May 2013, the ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center was the first science center to create and share a publicly accessible version of the AR sandbox.
"Its a teaching tool for all ages," said UC-Davis TERC director Geoffrey Schladow. "Usually, when you talk to kids about topography or what a contour line means, theyre asleep in 30 seconds. With this exhibit, theyre playing around, seeing the topographic map and watching how water flows downhill and where it goes. It becomes a game, and theyve done it without really knowing theyve learned something."
The sandbox was created by a UC-Davis team, led by KeckCAVES associate research scientist Oliver Kreylos, after being inspired by a video created by a group of Czech researchers who demonstrated in 2011, a prototype of an AR sandbox that used color mapping and a limited form of fluid flow. The team took the basic idea of capturing a sand surface with a 3-D camera and projecting a colored image depicting elevation back onto the sand, then added a realistic water simulation and elevation contour lines to make the sandbox look more like a printed topographic map.
Further information about the AR sandbox including videos of the AR process in action is available on Kreylos' website Here.
[This research was supported by NSF grant DRL 11-14663.]