Table 1:

Emerging Technologies in Biology

Scientific and/or Technical Goal Emerging TechnologyRelated Technology Needs
More powerful methods for acquisition, analysis, display, interpretation, and search of complex biological data setsBioinformatics (Intelligent data networks, query, retrieval, analysis, and visualization tools)

High performance computing and communication
Models for biological information management

Algorithms for deciphering biological information

Human/computer interfaces
High resolution structure of biological moleculesMolecular dynamic calculations and theory

Powerful, coherent x-ray sources

High field NMR spectrometers

Genetic engineering tools

Rigorous similarity search algorithms

Advanced computational analysis of x-ray and NMR data

Algorithms for the prediction of tertiary protein structure from primary sequence
High performance computing

Advanced computer visualization tools

Functional imaging of living systems (from single molecules to man)Light optical imaging modalities

Scanning probe microscopies

NMR imaging spectrometers

Biosensors and biomarkers of chemical and molecular events

Luminescent and magnetic probes

High temporal and spatial resolution detectors

Chemically caged bioeffector molecules

Tissue engineering methods
High performance computing and communication

Advanced computer visualization tools

Relational data bases with search engines

Transfection tools

Integrated, implantable multi-electrode/amplifier arrays and detectors

Genetic model organisms

Non-linear optics
Improved tools for microanalysis and micromanipulation of molecules and cellsNanotechnologies (micro to nanofabrication methods) to build small analytical and selection machines

Biochips for combinatorial chemistry, in two and three dimensions

in vitro and in vivo selection instruments based on electronic read-out of functional assays for molecules and cells

Single molecule detection methods
Scanning probe microscopies

High through-put array detectors

High performance computing

Material chemistry of surfaces

Biosensors and biomarkers

Optical and fluidic capture and transport tools

Integration of spectrometry methods in molecular separation instruments
Efficient, stable (or transient) and predictable genetic transformation of animals, plants and cultured cells for research and commerceVirus-based vector systems, including systems for delivering vectors to specific tissues in intact organisms

Chemical and/or mechanical delivery systems
Transgenic models

Functional imaging technologies

In vitro and in vivo selection and isolation instruments

Better DNA/RNA hybridization techniques

Biosensors of gene expression

High through-put protein and nucleic acid sequencing machines

Improved synthesis of oligo arrays
Discovery and preservation of biodiversityRemote sensing tools (earth and space-based)

Advanced statistical analyses

High through-put protein and nucleic acid sequencing machines

Biochips for combinatorial chemistry

In vitro and in vivo selection instruments based on electronic read-out of functional assay
High performance computing


Improved phylogenetic techniques for microorganisms

Techniques for detection and recognition of unculturable organisms

Effective expression systems for novel DNA sequences from nature
Biological influence on global cyclesRemote sensing (both earth and space-based)

Micrometeorological methods

Use of natural and introduced isotopes with tuned diodes
High performance computing

Biosensors and markers


Advanced computer visualization tools

Deployment and recovery of biosensors
Enhanced waste treatment and bioremediationMicrobial isolation methods

Ground penetrating radar

Synthetic biocatalysis (designer enzymes)

Dispersal techniques for microbes in soil
Remote sensors

Deployment, reading, and recovery of biosensors

Genetic engineering of organisms