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Baccalaureate Origins of U.S.-trained S&E Doctorate Recipients

NSF 13-323 | April 2013 | PDF format. PDF  
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by Mark K. Fiegener and Steven L. Proudfoot[1]

Foreign institutions and U.S. research universities play large roles in the baccalaureate education of U.S.-trained science and engineering (S&E) doctorate recipients.[2] In 2011, about one-third (35%) of individuals earning S&E doctorates from U.S. universities held bachelor's degrees from foreign institutions, and 29% earned bachelor's degrees from U.S. doctorate-granting institutions with very high research activity[3] (table 1). Other doctorate-granting universities, master's colleges and universities, and baccalaureate colleges combined to account for another 28%. Among U.S. S&E doctorate recipients, the proportion with a foreign bachelor's degree increased 4 percentage points from 2002 to 2011, while the proportion with a bachelor's degree from a U.S. institution declined slightly over this period for each type of institution.

TABLE 1. S&E doctorate recipients, by 2010 Carnegie classification of baccalaureate institution: 2002–11
Year All
institutions
Very high
research activity
universities
Other doctorate
-granting universitiesa
Master's
colleges and
universities
Baccalaureate
colleges
Other or
unclassified
Carnegie
groupb
Foreign
institutions
Unknown
baccalaureate-
origin
institutions
2002 26,265 7,961 2,737 2,666 2,460 139 8,069 2,233
2003 26,917 8,027 2,723 2,629 2,520 145 8,753 2,120
2004 27,993 7,989 2,650 2,768 2,585 143 9,423 2,435
2005 29,770 8,116 2,849 2,816 2,560 167 10,960 2,302
2006 31,778 8,470 2,918 2,873 2,716 169 12,233 2,399
2007 33,977 8,693 2,983 3,024 2,892 174 13,082 3,129
2008 34,927 9,457 3,185 3,048 2,863 198 13,054 3,122
2009 35,560 10,027 3,384 3,261 3,098 175 12,790 2,825
2010 35,234 10,245 3,320 3,314 3,061 163 12,096 3,035
2011 36,654 10,555 3,606 3,437 3,229 178 12,721 2,928

S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

aIncludes high research activity and doctoral/research universities.
bIncludes associate's colleges, special focus institutions, and tribal colleges.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Table 1 Source Data: Excel file

Public universities with very high research activity are prominent in the baccalaureate training of U.S. S&E doctorate recipients, as reflected in the ranked list of U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions (table 2). Of the top 20 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions for 2002–11 S&E doctorate recipients, 19 are research universities with very high research activity, including 15 public institutions. Of the top 50 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions for 2002–11 S&E doctorate recipients, approximately two-thirds are public institutions, and only 1, Brigham Young University, is not a research university with very high research activity.

TABLE 2. Top 50 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 S&E doctorate recipients, by institutional control and 2010 Carnegie classification
Rank Academic institution Institutional
control
2010 Carnegie
classification
S&E doctorate
recipients
na All baccalaureate-origin institutions na na 319,075
na Foreign institutions na na 113,181
na Unknown institutions na na 26,528
1 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high 3,406
2 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high 2,646
3 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high 2,205
4 U. IL, Urbana-Champaign Public Research-very high 1,976
5 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high 1,934
6 U. WI, Madison Public Research-very high 1,881
7 MA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high 1,880
8 U. CA, Los Angeles Public Research-very high 1,873
9 Harvard U. Private Research-very high 1,794
10 U. TX, Austin Public Research-very high 1,787
11 U. FL Public Research-very high 1,730
12 Brigham Young U., main campus Private Research-high 1,688
13 U. CA, San Diego Public Research-very high 1,546
14 U. CA, Davis Public Research-very high 1,542
15 Stanford U. Private Research-very high 1,359
16 TX A&M U., main campus Public Research-very high 1,299
17 U. VA, main campus Public Research-very high 1,260
18 Rutgers, State U. NJ, New Brunswick Public Research-very high 1,256
18 U. WA, Seattle Public Research-very high 1,256
20 U. MD, College Park Public Research-very high 1,216
21 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U. Public Research-very high 1,193
22 Brown U. Private Research-very high 1,188
23 OH State U., main campus Public Research-very high 1,178
24 U. MN, Twin Cities Public Research-very high 1,161
25 Princeton U. Private Research-very high 1,131
26 Duke U. Private Research-very high 1,103
27 Purdue U., main campus Public Research-very high 1,097
28 MI State U. Public Research-very high 1,092
28 U. AZ Public Research-very high 1,092
30 U. PA Private Research-very high 1,081
31 Yale U. Private Research-very high 1,020
32 U. NC, Chapel Hill Public Research-very high 991
33 U. CO, Boulder Public Research-very high 987
34 U. CA, Santa Barbara Public Research-very high 959
35 U. CA, Santa Cruz Public Research-very high 952
36 Northwestern U. Private Research-very high 949
37 U. of Chicago Private Research-very high 940
38 NC State U., Raleigh Public Research-very high 938
39 Boston U. Private Research-very high 913
40 GA Institute of Technology, main campus Public Research-very high 911
41 IA State U. Public Research-very high 863
42 Columbia U. in the City of New York Private Research-very high 829
43 Carnegie Mellon U. Private Research-very high 812
44 Johns Hopkins U. Private Research-very high 797
45 U. CA, Irvine Public Research-very high 787
46 IN U., Bloomington Public Research-very high 785
47 U. of Rochester Private Research-very high 771
48 AZ State U. Public Research-very high 744
49 CA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high 739
50 U. DE Public Research-very high 734

na = not applicable.

S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

NOTE: Institutions with the same number of doctorate recipients are listed alphabetically.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Table 2 Source Data: Excel file

Table 3 reports the top 10 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions for 2002–11 doctorate recipients in each of the four broad subfields of S&E: life sciences, physical sciences, social sciences, and engineering. The public research universities dominate these lists. Of the 18 institutions listed in the table, 12 appear on the top 10 list for multiple broad subfields, and 4 institutions—the University of California, Berkeley; Cornell University; Pennsylvania State University; and the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor—appear on each list. The University of California, Berkeley is the top-ranking institution in all three of the science subfields and ranks second in engineering.

TABLE 3. Top 10 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 S&E doctorate recipients, by doctoral field of degree, institutional control, and 2010 Carnegie classification
Rank Doctoral field of degree and academic institution Institutional
control
2010 Carnegie
classification
S&E doctorate
recipients
Life sciencesa
1 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high 1,132
2 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high 1,085
3 U. WI, Madison Public Research-very high 854
4 U. CA, Davis Public Research-very high 817
5 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high 754
6 U. IL, Urbana-Champaign Public Research-very high 745
7 U. CA, Los Angeles Public Research-very high 686
8 U. CA, San Diego Public Research-very high 673
9 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high 655
10 U. FL Public Research-very high 641
Physical sciences
1 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high 740
2 MA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high 637
3 Harvard U. Private Research-very high 548
4 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high 505
5 CA Institute of Technology Public Research-very high 404
6 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high 368
7 Brigham Young U., main campus Private Research-high 335
8 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high 331
9 U. TX, Austin Public Research-very high 328
10 U. IL, Urbana-Champaign Public Research-very high 324
Social sciencesb
1 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high 888
2 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high 724
3 U. CA, Los Angeles Public Research-very high 645
4 Harvard U. Private Research-very high 629
5 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high 597
6 U. TX, Austin Public Research-very high 586
7 Brigham Young U., main campus Private Research-high 516
8 U. FL Public Research-very high 468
9 U. WI, Madison Public Research-very high 445
10 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high 424
Engineering
1 MA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high 671
2 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high 646
3 GA Institute of Technology, main campus Public Research-very high 510
4 U. IL, Urbana-Champaign Public Research-very high 507
5 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high 458
6 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high 457
7 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high 425
8 U. FL Public Research-very high 387
9 Purdue U., main campus Public Research-very high 382
10 VA Polytechnic Institute and State U. Public Research-very high 365

S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

a Includes agricultural, biological, biomedical, and health sciences.
b Includes psychology.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Table 3 Source Data: Excel file

Institutional-Yield Ratio Based on All S&E Doctorate Recipients

Although U.S. research universities are few in number (108 universities are classified as research universities with very high research activity, according to the 2010 Carnegie basic classification), collectively they award a large proportion of U.S. bachelor's degrees each year. In contrast, the several hundred baccalaureate colleges in the United States, as a group, award a smaller proportion of the total number of U.S. bachelor's degrees.[4] Because the number of bachelor's degrees awarded per institution—and, thus, the pool of potential doctorate recipients—is smaller for baccalaureate colleges than for research universities with very high research activity, rankings of baccalaureate-origin institutions based on the absolute numbers of S&E doctorate recipients understate the contributions of the baccalaureate colleges in the training of U.S. S&E doctorate recipients. To account for this disparity, a second measure of institutional contribution is used to establish rankings. The "institutional-yield ratio" for a baccalaureate-origin institution for a given year is expressed as the number of S&E doctorate recipients per 100 bachelor's degrees awarded in all fields 9 years earlier.[5]

Research universities with very high research activity had the highest institutional-yield ratio each year from 2002 to 2011, followed by baccalaureate colleges, other doctorate-granting universities, and master's colleges and universities (figure 1). The institutional-yield ratios increased for all four types of institutions over this period, and research universities with very high research activity and other doctorate-granting universities showed the largest increases.

When institutional rankings are determined according to the institutional-yield ratio based on S&E doctorate recipients rather than the absolute counts of S&E doctorate recipients, the list of top U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions changes dramatically (table 4). Nine of the top 20 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 S&E doctorate recipients are baccalaureate colleges, 10 are research universities with very high research activity, and only 1 of the top 20 (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) is a public institution. Of the top 50 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions ranked by the institutional-yield ratio, 27 are baccalaureate colleges and 21 are research universities with very high research activity). Only 3 of the institutions appearing on the top 20 list of table 2 also appear in the top 20 of table 4: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, and Stanford University.

TABLE 4. Top 50 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 S&E doctorate recipients, by institutional-yield ratio, institutional control, and 2010 Carnegie classification
S&E doctorate recipients
Rank Academic institution Institutional
control
2010 Carnegie
classification
Number Institutional-
yield ratio
1 CA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high 739 34.9
2 Harvey Mudd C. Private Baccalaureate 359 24.4
3 MA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high 1,880 16.0
4 Reed C. Private Baccalaureate 374 14.2
5 Swarthmore C. Private Baccalaureate 472 13.1
6 Carleton C. Private Baccalaureate 555 12.3
7 Grinnell C. Private Baccalaureate 366 11.1
8 Rice U. Private Research-very high 728 10.8
9 U. of Chicago Private Research-very high 940 10.7
10 Princeton U. Private Research-very high 1,131 10.1
11 Harvard U. Private Research-very high 1,794 10.0
12 Pomona C. Private Baccalaureate 345 9.5
13 Haverford C. Private Baccalaureate 269 9.5
14 NM Institute of Mining and Technology Public Master's granting 142 9.1
15 Williams C. Private Baccalaureate 451 8.7
16 Case Western Reserve U. Private Research-very high 608 8.4
17 Bryn Mawr C. Private Baccalaureate 245 8.3
18 Stanford U. Private Research-very high 1,359 8.0
19 Brown U. Private Research-very high 1,188 8.0
20 Yale U. Private Research-very high 1,020 7.8
21 Macalester C. Private Baccalaureate 311 7.8
22 Carnegie Mellon U. Private Research-very high 812 7.7
23 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high 2,646 7.7
24 Hillsdale C. Private Baccalaureate 65 7.7
25 Oberlin C. Private Baccalaureate 523 7.6
26 Amherst C. Private Baccalaureate 309 7.4
27 Johns Hopkins U. Private Research-very high 797 7.2
28 Lawrence U. Private Baccalaureate 178 7.1
29 Duke U. Private Research-very high 1,103 7.1
30 Kalamazoo C. Private Baccalaureate 182 6.8
31 U. of Rochester Private Research-very high 771 6.6
32 Wesleyan U. Private Baccalaureate 471 6.6
33 Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art Private Baccalaureate 125 6.5
34 Wellesley C. Private Baccalaureate 386 6.5
35 Hendrix C. Private Baccalaureate 129 6.3
36 Whitman C. Private Baccalaureate 193 6.3
37 Brandeis U. Private Research-very high 451 6.3
38 Allegheny C. Private Baccalaureate 233 6.1
39 Vassar C. Private Baccalaureate 348 6.1
40 Bowdoin C. Private Baccalaureate 240 6.1
41 Dartmouth C. Private Research-very high 654 6.0
42 Earlham C. Private Baccalaureate 138 6.0
43 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high 3,406 5.9
44 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Private Research-very high 590 5.9
45 Mount Holyoke C. Private Baccalaureate 278 5.8
46 Columbia U. in the City of New York Private Research-very high 829 5.7
47 CO School of Mines Public Research-very high 237 5.7
48 Occidental C. Private Baccalaureate 206 5.7
49 Franklin and Marshall C. Private Baccalaureate 231 5.5
50 C. of William and Mary Public Research-high 718 5.5

S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

NOTES: Institutional-yield ratio is the number of S&E doctorate recipients per 100 bachelor's degrees awarded in all fields 9 years earlier. Only institutions from which 50 or more baccalaureate recipients received S&E doctorate degrees between 2002 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Institutions are ranked on unrounded ratios.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey.

Table 4 Source Data: Excel file

Historically Black Colleges and Universities

In 2011, 24% of black S&E doctorate recipients[6] received their bachelor's degree from historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), the second most common type of baccalaureate-origin institution next to research universities with very high research activity (29%) for these doctorate recipients (table 5). The proportion of black S&E doctorate recipients with bachelor's degrees from HBCUs has declined from 2006 to 2011, while the proportion with bachelor's degrees from research universities with very high research activity remained near 30% for all but one year of the 2002–11 period. Foreign institutions provided the baccalaureate training for a small but growing proportion of black S&E doctorate recipients, accounting for 7% of the doctorate recipients in 2002 and 11% in 2011.

TABLE 5. Black S&E doctorate recipients, by selected classes of baccalaureate-origin institutions: 2002–11
U.S. non-HBCU institutions
Year All institutions HBCUs Very high research activity universities Other doctorate-granting universitiesa Master's colleges and universities Baccalaureate colleges Other or unclassified Carnegie groupb Foreign institutions Unknown baccalaureate institutions
2002 763 198 243 78 106 67 6 51 14
2003 742 196 222 80 82 56 11 59 36
2004 863 241 253 92 117 58 9 60 33
2005 829 236 245 108 95 55 8 51 31
2006 876 260 251 114 93 59 7 70 22
2007 908 256 231 107 121 57 11 83 42
2008 928 227 291 124 102 53 11 85 35
2009 1,093 269 333 106 139 81 5 108 52
2010 1,053 276 331 108 114 79 8 101 36
2011 1,147 276 336 134 156 71 12 130 32

HBCU = historically black college or university. S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

a Includes high research activity and doctoral/research universities.
b Includes associate's colleges, special focus institutions, and tribal colleges.

NOTE: HBCUs are excluded from each of the 2010 Carnegie classification groups presented in the table.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Table 5 Source Data: Excel file

The importance of HBCUs and research universities with very high research activity in the training of black S&E doctorate recipients is evident from the rankings of baccalaureate-origin institutions of black S&E doctorate recipients (table 6). Ten of the top 11 baccalaureate-origin institutions of black S&E doctorate recipients from 2002–11 are HBCUs, and 19 of the top 20 are either HBCUs or research universities with very high research activity. The University of Maryland, Baltimore County is the only institution in the top 20 that is neither an HBCU nor a research university with very high research activity. Thirteen of the top 20 institutions are public institutions. Of the top 50 baccalaureate-origin institutions of black S&E doctorate recipients, 21 are HBCUs and 27 are research universities with very high research activity.

TABLE 6. Top 50 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 black S&E doctorate recipients, by institutional control, 2010 Carnegie classification, and HBCU status
Rank Academic institution Institutional control 2010 Carnegie classification HBCU Black S&E doctorate recipients
na All baccalaureate-origin institutions na na na 9,202
na Foreign institutions na na na 798
na Unknown institutions na na na 345
1 Howard U. Private Research-high Yes 220
2 Spelman C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 175
3 FL A&M U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 154
4 Hampton U. Private Master's granting Yes 150
5 Xavier U. LA Private Baccalaureate Yes 126
6 Morehouse C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 106
7 Morgan State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 102
7 NC A&T State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 102
9 Southern U. and A&M C Public Master's granting Yes 100
10 Tuskegee U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 80
10 U. MD, Baltimore County Public Research-high No 80
12 U. MD, College Park Public Research-very high No 76
13 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high No 73
14 U. VA, main campus Public Research-very high No 72
15 Harvard U. Private Research-very high No 71
16 Jackson State U. Public Research-high Yes 69
17 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high No 64
18 U. IL, Urbana-Champaign Public Research-very high No 62
18 U. NC, Chapel Hill Public Research-very high No 62
20 TN State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 61
21 Yale U. Private Research-very high No 60
22 Brown U. Private Research-very high No 55
22 MA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high No 55
24 U. FL Public Research-very high No 54
25 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high No 51
26 AL A&M U. Public Master's granting Yes 50
26 NC State U., Raleigh Public Research-very high No 50
28 Duke U. Private Research-very high No 49
29 Princeton U. Private Research-very high No 47
29 Rutgers State U. NJ, New Brunswick Public Research-very high No 47
31 CUNY City C. Public Master's granting No 46
31 GA Institute of Technology, main campus Public Research-very high No 46
31 MI State U. Public Research-very high No 46
34 Clark Atlanta U. Private Doctoral/Research Yes 45
34 FL State U. Public Research-very high No 45
34 Prairie View A&M U. Public Master's granting Yes 45
37 Tougaloo C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 44
38 U. PA Private Research-very high No 43
39 CUNY, Hunter C. Public Master's granting No 42
39 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high No 42
41 Norfolk State U. Public Master's granting Yes 41
42 LA State U. and A&M C Public Research-very high No 40
42 NC Central U. Public Master's granting Yes 40
42 U. CA, Los Angeles Public Research-very high No 40
45 Grambling State U. Public Master's granting Yes 39
45 U. SC, Columbia Public Research-very high No 39
47 Stanford U. Private Research-very high No 36
47 TX A&M U., main campus Public Research-very high No 36
47 U. GA Public Research-very high No 36
50 Dillard U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 35
50 Fisk U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 35
50 Temple U. Public Research-high No 35

na = not applicable.

HBCU = historically black college or university. S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

NOTES: Includes only U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Institutions with the same number of doctorate recipients are listed alphabetically.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Table 6 Source Data: Excel file

Table 7 reports the top 10 baccalaureate-origin institutions for 2002–11 black doctorate recipients by broad subfield of S&E. All of the top-ranking baccalaureate-origin institutions in physical sciences and all but one of the top-ranking institutions in life sciences are HBCUs. Research universities with very high research activity are among the top 10 baccalaureate-origin institutions of black doctorate recipients in two S&E subfields: social sciences and engineering. Twelve of the 22 institutions listed in the table appear on the top 10 list for multiple broad subfields, and Howard University and Florida A&M University appear on each list.

TABLE 7. Top 10 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 black S&E doctorate recipients, by field of doctoral degree, institutional control, 2010 Carnegie classification, and HBCU status
Rank Academic institution Institutional control 2010 Carnegie classification HBCU Black S&E doctorate recipients
Life sciencesa
1 Xavier U. LA Private Baccalaureate Yes 74
2 Howard U. Private Research-high Yes 61
3 Hampton U. Private Master's granting Yes 57
4 Spelman C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 55
5 U. MD, Baltimore County Public Research-high No 50
6 FL A&M U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 46
7 NC A&T State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 35
8 Southern U. and A&M C Public Master's granting Yes 34
9 Tuskegee U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 32
10 Morehouse C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 31
10 Morgan State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 31
Physical sciences
1 Howard U. Private Research-high Yes 28
2 Hampton U. Private Master's granting Yes 24
2 Morehouse C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 24
4 Spelman C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 23
5 Southern U. and A&M C Public Master's granting Yes 22
6 FL Agricultural and Mechanical U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 19
7 Xavier U. LA Private Baccalaureate Yes 16
8 Jackson State U. Public Research-high Yes 13
8 Norfolk State U. Public Master's granting Yes 13
10 AL A&M U. Public Master's granting Yes 12
10 NC A&T State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 12
Social sciencesb
1 Howard U. Private Research-high Yes 109
2 Spelman C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 84
3 Hampton U. Private Master's granting Yes 61
4 FL A&M U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 52
5 Harvard U. Private Research-very high No 44
6 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high No 42
7 Morehouse C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 39
8 U. MD, College Park Public Research-very high No 37
8 U. VA, main campus Public Research-very high No 37
10 Yale U. Private Research-very high No 36
Engineering
1 NC A&T State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 48
2 FL A&M U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 37
3 Morgan State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 32
4 Brown U. Private Research-very high No 28
5 GA Institute of Technology, main campus Public Research-very high No 25
6 Howard U. Private Research high Yes 22
7 Tuskegee U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 20
8 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high No 18
9 U. MD, College Park Public Research-very high No 16
9 U. MD, Baltimore County Public Research-high No 16

HBCU = historically black college or university. S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

a Includes agricultural, biological, biomedical, and health sciences.
b Includes psychology.

NOTES: Includes only U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Institutions with the same number of doctorate recipients are listed alphabetically.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates.

Table 7 Source Data: Excel file

Institutional-Yield Ratio Based on Black S&E Doctorate Recipients

As noted earlier in this report, institutional rankings based on absolute numbers of S&E doctorate recipients may not fully reflect the relative contributions of particular types of institutions in the training of S&E doctorate recipients. Figure 2 shows the institutional-yield ratio based on black S&E doctorate recipients (counts of black S&E doctorates in each category of baccalaureate-origin institution are normalized by the number of bachelor's degrees awarded to blacks 9 years earlier by universities in the same Carnegie class). In every year from 2002 to 2011, research universities with very high research activity had the highest institutional-yield ratio based on blacks with S&E doctorates. The institutional-yield ratio of HBCUs has been equal to or greater than that of baccalaureate colleges every year since 2005. Over the years 2002 to 2011, HBCUs are the only type of baccalaureate-origin institution that has shown an upward trend (albeit slight) in institutional-yield ratio based on blacks with S&E doctorates.

Determining the institutional rankings on the institutional-yield ratio based on blacks with S&E doctorates, rather than on the absolute counts of black S&E doctorate recipients, generates a very different list of top producing baccalaureate-origin institutions (table 8). Of the top 20 baccalaureate-origin institutions for black S&E doctorate recipients over the 2002–11 period, 16 are research universities with very high research activity and 3 are HBCUs (all baccalaureate colleges). Only 2 of the top 20 are public institutions. Expanding the list to include the top 50 baccalaureate-origin institutions of black S&E doctorate recipient reveals 36 very high research universities, 12 HBCUs (of which 8 are baccalaureate colleges), and 22 public institutions. Only 4 of the institutions appearing on the top 20 list of table 6 also appear in the top 20 of table 8: Harvard University; University of Maryland, Baltimore County; Spelman College; and Xavier University of Louisiana.

TABLE 8. Top 50 U.S. baccalaureate-origin institutions of 2002–11 black S&E doctorate recipients, by institutional-yield ratio for black S&E doctorate recipients, institutional control, 2010 Carnegie classification, and HBCU status
Black S&E doctorate recipients
Rank Academic institution Institutional
control
2010 Carnegie
classification
HBCU Number Institutional-
yield ratio
1 MA Institute of Technology Private Research-very high No 55 9.6
2 Rice U. Private Research-very high No 25 7.0
3 Princeton U. Private Research-very high No 47 6.5
4 Brown U. Private Research-very high No 55 6.2
5 Yale U. Private Research-very high No 60 6.2
6 Harvard U. Private Research-very high No 71 5.4
7 Vanderbilt U. Private Research-very high No 25 4.6
8 U. MD, Baltimore County Public Research-high No 80 4.4
9 Spelman C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 175 4.2
10 Duke U. Private Research-very high No 49 4.1
11 Johns Hopkins U. Private Research-very high No 25 4.1
12 Cornell U., all campuses Private Research-very high No 51 3.6
13 U. PA Private Research-very high No 43 3.5
14 WA U., St Private Research-very high No 28 3.5
15 Columbia U. in the City of New York Private Research-very high No 32 3.3
16 Tougaloo C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 44 3.2
17 Tulane U. LA Private Research-very high No 26 3.2
18 Xavier U. LA Private Baccalaureate Yes 126 3.0
19 Stanford U. Private Research-very high No 36 2.9
20 GA Institute of Technology, main campus Public Research-very high No 46 2.7
21 U. CA, Davis Public Research-very high No 31 2.5
22 U. VA, main campus Public Research-very high No 72 2.4
23 Fisk U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 35 2.4
24 U. CA, Berkeley Public Research-very high No 64 2.3
25 Northwestern U. Private Research-very high No 27 2.3
26 Emory U. Private Research-very high No 25 2.2
27 Morehouse C. Private Baccalaureate Yes 106 2.2
28 U. MI, Ann Arbor Public Research-very high No 73 2.2
29 TX A&M U., main campus Public Research-very high No 36 2.1
30 U. of Miami Private Research-very high No 31 2.0
31 Howard U. Private Research-high Yes 220 2.0
32 U. NC, Chapel Hill Public Research-very high No 62 2.0
33 Hampton U. Private Master's granting Yes 150 1.9
34 U. IL, Urbana-Champaign Public Research-very high No 62 1.8
35 Tuskegee U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 80 1.8
36 Clemson U. Public Research-high No 32 1.8
37 U. DE Public Research-very high No 25 1.8
38 PA State U., main campus Public Research-very high No 42 1.8
39 NC State U., Raleigh Public Research-very high No 50 1.7
40 LA State U., and A&M C Public Research-very high No 40 1.7
41 Oakwood U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 29 1.7
42 U. at Buffalo Public Research-very high No 29 1.7
43 Morgan State U. Public Doctoral/Research Yes 102 1.6
44 Lincoln U. PA Public Master's granting Yes 34 1.6
45 U. FL Public Research-very high No 54 1.6
46 Dillard U. Private Baccalaureate Yes 35 1.5
47 U. TX, Austin Public Research-very high No 34 1.5
48 U. MD, College Park Public Research-very high No 76 1.5
49 Stony Brook U. Public Research-very high No 28 1.5
50 U. GA Public Research-very high No 36 1.5

HBCU = historically black college or university. S&E = science and engineering; includes health fields.

NOTES: Institutional-yield ratio for black S&E doctorate recipients is the number of black S&E doctorate recipients per 100 bachelor's degrees awarded in all fields to blacks 9 years earlier. Table includes only U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Only institutions from which 25 or more baccalaureate recipients received S&E doctorate degrees between 2002 and 2011 were included in the analysis. Institutions are ranked on unrounded ratios.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey.

Table 8 Source Data: Excel file

Notes

[1] Mark K. Fiegener (mfiegene@nsf.gov; 703-292-4622), Steven L. Proudfoot (sproudfo@nsf.gov; 703-292-4434), Human Resources Statistics Program, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965, Arlington, VA 22230.

[2] In this InfoBrief, science and engineering includes health fields. This InfoBrief updates the analysis reported in two earlier InfoBriefs: Baccalaureate Origins of S&E Doctorate Recipients (NSF 08-311) and Role of HBCUs as Baccalaureate-Origin Institutions of Black S&E Doctorate Recipients (NSF 08-319). Data collected by the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Survey of Earned Doctorates are used to report the numbers of S&E doctorate recipients between 2002 and 2011. Data from the Department of Education's Completions Survey provide the numbers of bachelor's degrees awarded between 1993 and 2002, 9 years prior to each year of doctoral degree data.

[3] The 2010 version of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Basic Classification scheme for colleges and universities categorizes academic institutions on the basis of highest degree conferred, level of degree production, and research activity. Institutions that award at least 20 doctoral degrees per year are called doctorate-granting universities, and are distributed among three subgroups based on the level of research activity: research universities with very high research activity, research universities with high research activity, and doctoral/research universities (for the purposes of this InfoBrief, the latter two subgroups are combined into a single category, called "other doctorate-granting universities"). Master's colleges and universities are institutions that award at least 50 master's degrees and fewer than 20 doctoral degrees per year. Baccalaureate colleges are institutions that award fewer than 50 master's degrees or 20 doctoral degrees per year and at which baccalaureate degrees are at least 10% of all undergraduate degrees. See http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/ for more information on the Carnegie classification scheme.

[4] Research universities with very high research activity were responsible for 25.6% of all bachelor's degrees awarded by U.S. academic institutions in 2011, and baccalaureate colleges were responsible for 11.5% of all bachelor's degrees (U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey; special tabulation from NSF's WebCASPAR system [http://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/], March 2013).

[5] Nine years was the median time from receipt of bachelor's degree to doctorate award for S&E doctorate recipients between 2002 and 2011. Time to degree was shorter in physical sciences (7.7 years) and in engineering (8.0 years) than in life sciences (8.6 years) and social sciences (9.9 years). Explorations of the data with 8- and 10-year lags produced similar results.

[6] The analysis in this section is limited to U.S. citizens and permanent residents as data on bachelor's degrees awarded by race or ethnicity are not provided for temporary residents. In this InfoBrief, "black" is used interchangeably with "black or African American."

National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
Baccalaureate Origins of U.S.-trained S&E Doctorate Recipients
Arlington, VA (NSF 13-323) [April 2013]


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