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Figure F-1. Doctoral degrees awarded in S&E and non-S&E fields to U.S. citizens and permanent residents, by sex: 1966–2006

Figure Updated: December 2008

Figure F-1. Doctoral degrees awarded in S&E and non-S&E fields to U.S. citizens and permanent residents, by sex: 1966–2006.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates, 1966–2006.

Doctoral degrees to female U.S. citizens and permanent visa holders rose over three decades, in sharp contrast to the downward trend for men, then flattened after 1995.

  • Degrees earned by men rose strongly until the early 1970s, dropped until the late 1980s, and dropped again after 1995.
  • Degrees earned by women increased through most of the period until flattening from the mid-1990s onward.
  • In 2006, women earned 45% of S&E and 59% of non-S&E doctoral degrees awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents, up from 8% and 18%, respectively, in 1966.

Related Information

Table F-11. S&E doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents, by field, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1999–2006

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