Table 4-19
International comparisons of gross domestic expenditures on R&D and R&D share of gross domestic product, by region and selected country/economy: 2009 or most recent year
 
Region/country/economy GERD (PPP $millions) GERD/GDP (%)     Region/country/economy GERD (PPP $millions) GERD/GDP (%)
 
North America         Middle East    
United States (2009)a 401,576.5 2.88     Israel (2009) 8,810.1 4.28
Canada (2009) 24,551.3 1.92     Turkey (2009) 8,681.2 0.85
Mexico (2007) 5,719.6 0.37     Iran (2008) 6,465.2 0.79
               
South America         Africa    
Brazil (2008) 21,649.4 1.08     South Africa (2008) 4,689.3 0.93
Argentina (2007) 2,678.8 0.51     Egypt (2009) 997.3 0.21
Chile (2004) 1,227.7 0.68     Morocco (2006) 765.1 0.64
          Tunisia (2009) 1,048.5 1.21
Europe              
Germany (2009) 82,730.7 2.78     Central Asia    
France (2009) 47,953.5 2.21     Russian Federation (2009) 33,368.1 1.24
United Kingdom (2009) 40,279.5 1.85          
Italy (2009) 24,752.6 1.27     South Asia    
Spain (2009) 20,496.4 1.38     India (2007) 24,439.4 0.76
Sweden (2009) 12,494.9 3.62     Pakistan (2009) 2,055.2 0.46
Netherlands (2009) 12,273.8 1.82          
Switzerland (2008) 10,512.7 3.00     East, Southeast Asia    
Austria (2009) 8,931.3 2.75     Japan (2009) 137,908.6 3.33
Belgium (2009) 7,684.9 1.96     China (2009) 154,147.4 1.70
Finland (2009) 7,457.8 3.96     South Korea (2008) 43,906.4 3.36
Denmark (2009) 6,283.8 3.02     Taiwan (2009) 21,571.8 2.93
Norway (2009) 4,734.1 1.76     Singapore (2009) 5,626.5 2.35
Poland (2009) 4,874.9 0.68     Malaysia (2006) 2,090.9 0.64
Portugal (2009) 4,411.0 1.66     Thailand (2007) 1,120.8 0.21
Czech Republic (2009) 4,094.8 1.53          
Ireland (2009) 3,164.6 1.79     Australia, Oceania    
Ukraine (2009) 2,485.7 0.86     Australia (2008) 18,755.0 2.21
Hungary (2009) 2,333.8 1.15     New Zealand (2007) 1,422.5 1.17
Romania (2009) 1,471.5 0.47          
Greece (2007) 1,867.9 0.59     Selected country groups    
Belarus (2009) 813.3 0.65     EU (2009) 297,889.6 1.90
Slovenia (2009) 1,043.6 1.86     OECD (2008) 965,629.1 2.33
Croatia (2009) 743.1 0.84     G-20 countries (2009) 1,181,263.7 2.01
Luxembourg (2009) 708.5 1.68          
Slovak Republic (2009) 595.5 0.48          
 

EU = European Union; GDP = gross domestic product; GERD = gross expenditures (domestic) on R&D; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PPP = purchasing power parity

aFigures for the United States in this table may differ slightly from those cited earlier in the chapter. Data here reflect international standards for calculating GERD, which vary slightly from NSF protocol for tallying U.S. total R&D.

NOTES: Year of data listed in parentheses. Foreign currencies converted to dollars through purchasing power parities. Countries with annual GERD of $500 million or more. Countries are grouped according to the regions described by the The CIA World Factbook, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. No countries in the Central America/Caribbean region had annual GERD of $500 million or more. Data for Israel are civilian R&D only. See sources below for GERD statistics on additional countries.

SOURCES: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators (2011/1); United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx, table 25, accessed 13 July 2011.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2012