Table 4-2
Annual rates of growth in U.S. R&D expenditures, total and by performing sectors: 1989–2009
(Percent)
 
    Longer term trend   Most recent years
Expenditures and gross domestic product   1989–2009 1999–2009 2004–09   2006–07 2007–08 2008–09
 
    Current dollars
Total R&D, all performers   5.3 5.0 5.8   7.7 6.9 -0.6
Business   5.3 4.5 6.3   8.7 8.0 -2.9
Federal government   3.6 5.7 4.1   5.5 1.8 3.3
Federal intramurala   3.6 5.6 4.4   5.7 -0.1 3.6
FFRDCs   3.6 5.8 3.6   5.1 5.6 2.8
Universities and colleges   6.4 6.8 4.7   4.4 5.4 5.3
Other nonprofit organizations   8.1 7.9 5.5   6.1 8.5 9.3
                 
Gross domestic product   4.8 4.1 3.3   4.9 1.9 -2.5
                 
    Constant 2005 dollars
Total R&D, all performers   2.9 2.6 3.1   4.6 4.6 –1.7
Business   3.0 2.1 3.6   5.7 5.6 –3.9
Federal government   1.3 3.2 1.6   2.5 –0.5 2.2
Federal intramurala   1.3 3.2 1.8   2.8 –2.2 2.5
FFRDCs   1.3 3.3 1.0   2.1 3.3 1.7
Universities and colleges   4.0 4.3 2.2   1.4 3.1 4.2
Other nonprofit organizations   5.7 5.4 2.9   3.1 6.2 8.2
                 
Gross domestic product   2.4 1.7 0.7   1.9 –0.3 –3.5
 

aIncludes expenditures of federal intramural R&D as well as costs associated with administering extramural R&D.

NOTE: Longer term trend rates are calculated as compound annual growth rates.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2012