Table 4-1
U.S. R&D expenditures, by performing sector and source of funding: 2004–09
 
Sector 2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009
 
  Current $millions
All performing sectors 302,503   324,993   350,162   376,960   403,040   400,458
Business 208,301   226,159   247,669   269,267   290,681   282,393
Federal government 37,685   39,568   41,611   43,906   44,674   46,151
Federal intramurala 24,898   26,322   28,240   29,859   29,839   30,901
FFRDCs 12,788   13,246   13,371   14,047   14,835   15,250
Industry administeredb 2,485   2,601   3,122   5,165   6,346   6,446
U&C administeredb 7,659   7,817   7,306   5,567   4,766   4,968
Nonprofit administered 2,644   2,828   2,943   3,316   3,724   3,835
Universities and colleges 43,122   45,190   46,955   49,010   51,650   54,382
Other nonprofit organizations 13,394   14,077   13,928   14,777   16,035   17,531
                       
All funding sectors 302,503   324,993   350,162   376,960   403,040   400,458
Business 191,266   207,680   227,057   246,679   258,626   247,357
Federal government 91,656   96,276   100,768   105,822   117,611   124,432
Universities and colleges 7,936   8,578   9,285   9,959   10,707   11,436
Nonfederal government 2,883   2,922   3,021   3,265   3,518   3,675
Other nonprofit organizations 8,761   9,538   10,031   11,235   12,578   13,559
                       
  Constant 2005 $millions
All performing sectors 312,548   324,993   339,202   354,864   371,184   364,951
Business 215,218   226,159   239,917   253,484   267,706   257,355
Federal government 38,937   39,568   40,308   41,332   41,143   42,059
Federal intramurala 25,724   26,322   27,356   28,109   27,480   28,161
FFRDCs 13,212   13,246   12,953   13,224   13,663   13,897
Industry administeredb 2,568   2,601   3,024   4,862   5,844   5,875
U&C administeredb 7,913   7,817   7,078   5,241   4,389   4,528
Nonprofit administered 2,732   2,828   2,851   3,121   3,429   3,495
Universities and colleges 44,554   45,190   45,485   46,137   47,568   49,561
Other nonprofit organizations 13,839   14,077   13,492   13,911   14,767   15,977
                       
All funding sectors 312,548   324,993   339,202   354,864   371,184   364,951
Business 197,617   207,680   219,950   232,220   238,184   225,425
Federal government 94,700   96,276   97,614   99,619   108,315   113,399
Universities and colleges 8,200   8,578   8,995   9,375   9,861   10,422
Nonfederal government 2,979   2,922   2,926   3,074   3,240   3,349
Other nonprofit organizations 9,052   9,538   9,717   10,576   11,584   12,356
 

FFRDC = federally funded research and development center; U&C = universities and colleges

aIncludes expenditures of federal intramural R&D and costs associated with administering extramural R&D.
bLos Alamos National Laboratory (approximately $2 billion in annual R&D expenditures in recent years) became industry administered in June 2006; previously, it was U&C administered. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (more than $1 billion in annual R&D expenditures in recent years) became industry administered in October 2007; previously, it was U&C administered. These shifts in administration category are a main reason for the changes apparent in the R&D performer figures across 2006, 2007, and 2008.

NOTES: Data are based on annual reports by performers except for the nonprofit sector. Expenditure levels for academic and federal government performers are calendar-year approximations based on fiscal year data. For federal government expenditures, the approximation is equal to 75% of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25% of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For academic expenditures, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because those fiscal years generally begin on July 1 instead of October 1. Some of the figures for other nonprofit organizations are estimated and may later be revised.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series). See appendix tables 4-3and 4-7.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2012