Skip all navigation and go to page content

Chapter 1. Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education

References

Abdulkadiroglu A, Angrist J, Cohodes S, Dynarski S, Fullerton J, Kane T, Pathak P. 2009. Informing the Debate: Comparing Boston's Charter, Pilot and Traditional Schools. Boston, MA: The Boston Foundation. http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~pfpie/pdf/InformingTheDebate_Final.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Achieve, Inc. 2008. The Building Blocks of Success: Higher-Level Math for All Students. Achieve Policy Brief. Washington, DC. http://www.achieve.org/BuildingBlocksofSuccess. Accessed July 2011.

Achieve, Inc. 2011. Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: http://www.achieve.org/next-generation-science-standards. Accessed July 2011.

ACT, Inc. 2010. A First Look at the Common Core and College and Career Readiness. Iowa City, IA. http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/reports/firstlook.html. Accessed July 2011.

Adelman C. 2006. The Tool Box Revisited. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/toolboxrevisit/index.html. Accessed July 2011.

Allegretto SA, Corcoran SP, Mishel L. 2008. The Teaching Penalty: Teacher Pay Losing Ground. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/book_teaching_penalty/. Accessed October 2010.

Allensworth EM, Nomi T. 2009. College preparatory curriculum for all: Academic consequences of requiring algebra and English I for ninth-graders in Chicago. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(4):367–91.

Almy S, Theokas C. 2010. Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers. Washington, DC: The Education Trust. http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/files/publications/files/Not%20Prepared%20for%20Class.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

American Federation of Teachers (AFT). 2008. Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2007. Washington, DC. http://www.aft.org/pdfs/teachers/salarysurvey07.pdf. Accessed March 2011.

Aritomi P, Coopersmith J. 2009. Characteristics of Public School Districts in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2009-320. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Baker EL, Barton PE, Darling-Hammond L, Haertel E, Ladd HF, Linn RL, Ravitch D, Rothstein R, Shavelson RJ, Shepard LA. 2010. Problems With the Use of Student Test Scores To Evaluate Teachers. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. http://epi.3cdn.net/b9667271ee6c154195_t9m6iij8k.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Banilower ER, Boyd SE, Pasley JD, Weiss IR. 2006. Lessons from a Decade of Mathematics and Science Reform: A Capstone Report for the Local Systemic Change through Teacher Enhancement Initiative. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research, Inc. http://www.pdmathsci.net/reports/capstone.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Barton, P.E. 2009. Chasing the High School Graduation Rate: Getting the Data We Need and Using It Right. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICCHASING.pdf. Accessed October 2011.

Berends M, Goldring E, Stein M, Cravens X. 2010. Instructional conditions in charter schools and students' mathematics achievement gains. American Journal of Education 116(3):303–36.

Berry B. 2004. Recruiting and retaining "highly qualified teacher" for hard-to-staff schools. NASSP Bulletin 87(March).

Berry B, Smylie M, Fuller E. 2008. Understanding Teacher Working Conditions: A Review and Look to the Future. Hillsborough, NC: Center for Teaching Quality. http://www.teachingquality.org/pdfs/TWC2_Nov08.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Betts JR, Tang YE. 2008. Value Added and Experimental Studies of the Effect of Charter Schools on Student Achievement. Seattle, WA: National Charter School Research Project, Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington, Bothell. http://www.crpe.org/cs/crpe/download/csr_files/pub_ncsrp_bettstang_dec08.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2010. Strategic use of education data: National Student Clearinghouse Pilot. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/college-ready-education/Pages/strategic-use-education-data.aspx. Accessed February 2011.

Borman GD, Dowling NM. 2008. Teacher attrition and retention: A meta-analytic and narrative review of the research. Review of Educational Research 78(3):367–409.

Boyd D, Grossman P, Lankford H, Loeb S, Wyckoff J. 2006. How changes in entry requirements alter the teacher workforce and affect student achievement. Education Finance and Policy 1(2):176–215.

Boyd D, Grossman P, Lankford H, Loeb S, Wyckoff J. 2008. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement. Washington, DC: National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1001255_teacher_preparation.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Boyd D, Grossman P, Lankford H, Loeb S, Wyckoff J. 2009. Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1001270_teacher_attrition.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Bozick R, Lauff E. 2007. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002): A First Look at the Initial Postsecondary Experiences of the Sophomore Class of 2002. NCES 2008-308. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Braun H, Jenkins F, Grigg W. 2006. A Closer Look at Charter Schools Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. NCES 2006-460. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Brill S, McCartney A. 2008. Stopping the revolving door: Increasing teacher retention. Politics & Policy 36(5):750–74.

Britton T, Paine L, Pimm D, Raizen S. 2003. Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Systems for Early Career Learning. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Buddin R, Zimmer R. 2005. A closer look at charter school student achievement. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24:351–72.

Buddin R, Zamarro G. 2009a. Teacher Qualifications and Middle School Student Achievement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2009/RAND_WR671.pdf. Accessed July 2011.

Buddin R, Zamarro G. 2009b. Teacher Qualifications and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. http://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/RP1410.html. Accessed July 2011.

Carson R, Laird E, Gaines E, Ferber T. 2010. Linking Data across Agencies: States That Are Making It Work. Washington, DC: Data Quality Campaign. http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/files/DQCbrief_Mar19_2_.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO). 2009. Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States. Stanford, CA. http://credo.stanford.edu/reports/MULTIPLE_CHOICE_CREDO.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Chapman C, Laird J, KewalRamani A. 2010. Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972–2008. NCES 2011-012. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Chen X. 2009. Students Who Study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in Postsecondary Education. NCES 2009-161. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Clotfelter C, Glennie E, Ladd H, Vigdor J. 2008. Would higher salaries keep teachers in high-poverty schools? Evidence from a policy intervention in North Carolina. Journal of Public Economics 92(5–6):1352–70.

Clotfelter CT, Ladd HF, Vigdor JL. 2007. Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis With Student Fixed Effects. Working Paper Series. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Cohen-Vogel L, Smith TM. 2007. Qualifications and assignments of alternatively certified teachers: Testing core assumptions. American Educational Research Journal 44(3):732–53.

Constantine J, Player D, Silva T, Grider M, Deke J. 2009. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification. NCEE 2009-4043. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2009. Effects of Teacher Professional Development on Gains in Student Achievement: How Meta Analysis Provides Scientific Evidence Useful to Education Leaders. Washington, DC. http://www.ccsso.org/Documents/2009/Effects_of_Teacher_Professional_2009.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Data Quality Campaign (DQC). 2011a. About DQC. http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/about. Accessed February 2011.

Data Quality Campaign (DQC). 2011b. Data for Action 2010: Executive Summary. Washington, DC. http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/stateanalysis. Accessed February 2011.

Data Quality Campaign (DQC). 2011c. Data for Action 2010: Executive Summary for State Analysis Responses by State. http://www.dataqualitycampaign.org/stateanalysis/states. Accessed February 2011.

Davis EA, Petish D, Smithey J. 2006. Challenges new science teachers face. Review of Educational Research 76(4):607–51.

Dee TS, Cohodes SR. 2008. Out-of-field teaching and student achievement: Evidence from "matched-pairs" comparisons. Public Finance Review 36(1):7–32.

Desimone LM, Smith TM, Ueno K. 2006. Are Teachers Who Need Sustained, Content-Focused Professional Development Getting It? An Administrator's Dilemma. Education Administration Quarterly 42(2):179–215.

Easton-Brooks D, Davis A. 2009. Teacher qualification and the achievement gap in early primary grades. Education Policy Analysis Archives 17(15).

Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. 2010. Quality Counts 2010: Fresh Course, Swift Current. Education Week 29(17). http://www.edweek.org/ew/toc/2010/01/14/index.html. Accessed October 2010.

EdSource. 2010. Common core standards. http://www.edsource.org/iss_sta_commoncore.html. Accessed February 2011.

Fine S. 2010. Moving forward with the Common Core. Education Week 30(8):18–19. http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/10/20/08fine.h30.html?tkn=LYXFpDDbwWg77mw9AnpIQPhrrQpBWyZw4y%2Fk&cmp=clp-edweek. Accessed February 2011.

Fryer RG. 2011. Teacher Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from New York City Public Schools. NBER Working Paper 16850. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w16850. Accessed May 2011.

Fulton K, Yoon I, Lee C. 2005. Induction Into Learning Communities. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. http://www.nctaf.org/documents/NCTAF_Induction_Paper_2005.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Gamoran A, Hannigan EC. 2000. Algebra for everyone? Benefits of college-preparatory mathematics for students with diverse abilities in early secondary school. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 22(3):241–54.

Garcia D. 2008. Academic and racial segregation in charter schools: Do parents sort students into specialized charter schools? Education and Urban Society 40(3):590–612.

Garet MS, Wayne AJ, Stancavage F, Taylor J, Walters K, Song M, Brown S, Hurlburt S, Zhu P, Sepanik S, Doolittle F. 2010. Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the First Year of Implementation. NCEE 2010-4009. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Garet MS, Wayne AJ, Stancavage F, Taylor J, Eaton M, Walters K, Song M, Brown S, Hurlburt S, Zhu P, Sepanik S, Doolittle F. 2011. Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the Second Year of Implementation. NCEE 2010-4024. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Gewertz C. 2010. Common-standards watch: South Dakota makes 44. Education Week's Curriculum Matters blog, November 29. http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2010/11/common-standards_watch_south_d.html. Accessed February 2011.

Glazerman S, Isenberg E, Dolfin S, Bleeker M, Johnson A, Grider M, Jacobus M. 2010. Impacts of Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Final Results from a Randomized Controlled Study. NCEE 2010-4027. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Goe L. 2008. Key Issue: Using Value-Added Models to Identify and Support Highly Effective Teachers. Washington, DC: The National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. http://www2.tqsource.org/strategies/het/UsingValueAddedModels.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Goldhaber D, Choi H, Cramer L. 2007. A descriptive analysis of the distribution of NBPTS-certified teachers in North Carolina. Economics of Education Review 26(2):160–72.

Grady S, Bielick S. 2010. Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007. NCES 2010-004. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Greenberg J, Walsh K. 2008. No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools. Washington, DC: National Council on Teacher Quality. http://www.nctq.org/p/publications/docs/nctq_ttmath_fullreport_20080626115953.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Gruber KJ, Wiley SD, Broughman SP, Strizek GA, Burian-Fitzgerald M. 2002. Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999–2000: Overview of the Data for Public, Private, Public Charter, and Bureau of Indian Affairs Elementary and Secondary Schools. NCES 2002-313. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Guarino CM, Santibanez L, Daley GA. 2006. Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research 76(2):173–208.

Hakel MD, Koenig JA, Elliott SW (editors). 2008. Assessing Accomplished Teaching: Advanced-Level Certification Programs. Committee on Evaluation of Teacher Certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. 2008. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Hanushek EA, Kain JF, O'Brien DM, Rivkin SG. 2005. The Market for Teacher Quality. Working Paper Series. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hanushek EA, Kain JF, Rivkin SG. 2004. Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of Human Resources 39(2):326–54.

Hanushek EA, Peterson PE, Woessmann L. 2010. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? Cambridge, MA: Harvard's Program on Education Policy & Governance, Harvard Kennedy School. http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-19_HanushekPetersonWoessmann.pdf. Accessed January 2011.

Hanushek EA, Rivkin SG. 2006. Teacher quality. In: Hanushek EA and Welch F, editors. Handbook of the Economics of Education. Volume 2. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland.

Hanushek EA, Rivkin SG. 2007. Pay, working conditions, and teacher quality. Excellence in the Classroom 17(1):69–86. http://www.futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=34 &articleid=76. Accessed January 2011.

Hanushek EA, Rivkin SG. 2010. Using Value-Added Measures of Teacher Quality. Washington, DC: National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/1001371-teacher-quality.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Harris DN, Sass TR. 2007. The Effects of NBPTS-Certified Teachers on Student Achievement. Working Paper 4. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban Institute. http://www.caldercenter.org/PDF/1001060_NBPTS_Certified.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Harris DN, Sass TR. 2008. Teacher Training, Teacher Quality, and Student Achievement. Working Paper 3. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban Institute. http://www.caldercenter.org/PDF/1001059_Teacher_Training.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Henke RR, Choy SP, Chen X, Geis S, Alt MN. 1997. America's Teachers: Profile of a Profession, 1993–94. NCES 97-460. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Hill JG, Gruber KJ. 2011. Education and Certification Qualifications of Departmentalized Public High School-Level Teachers of Core Subjects: Evidence From the 2007–08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2011-317. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Hoffman L. 2008. Numbers and Types of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2006–07. NCES 2009-304. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Hoxby CM, Murarka S, Kang J. 2009. How New York City's Charter Schools Affect Achievement. Cambridge, MA: New York City Charter Schools Evaluation Project. http://www.nber.org/~schools/charterschoolseval/how_NYC_charter_schools_affect_achievement_sept2009.pdf. Accessed July 2011.

Humphrey DC, Koppich JE, Hough HJ. 2005. Sharing the wealth: National Board certified teachers and the schools that need them most. Education Policy Analysis Archives 13(18).

Humphrey DC, Weschler ME, Hough HJ. 2008. Characteristics of effective alternative teacher certification programs. Teachers College Record 110(4). http://policyweb.sri.com/cep/publications/AltCert_finalTCversion.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

Ingels SJ, Dalton B, Holder TE, Lauff E, Burns LJ. 2011. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): A First Look at Fall 2009 Ninth-Graders. NCES 2011-327. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Ingersoll R, Perda D. 2009. The Mathematics and Science Teacher Shortage: Fact and Myth. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education. http://www.cpre.org/images/stories/cpre_pdfs/math%20science%20shortage%20paper%20march%202009%20final.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Ingersoll RM, May H. 2010. The Magnitude, Destinations, and Determinants of Mathematics and Science Teacher Turnover. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education. http://www.gse.upenn.edu/pdf/rmi/MathSciTeacherTurnover.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES). 2011a. Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems Grant Program: Grantee states. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/slds/stateinfo.asp. Accessed February 2011.

Institute of Education Sciences (IES). 2011b. Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems Grant Program: Program overview. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/slds. Accessed February 2011.

Jacob BA, Lefgren L. 2008. Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics 26:101–36.

Jalongo MR, Heider K. 2006. Teacher attrition: An issue of national concern. Early Childhood Education Journal 33(6):379–80.

Kane TJ, Rockoff JE, Staiger DO. 2006. What Does Certification Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness? Evidence from New York City. NBER Working Paper 12155. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w12155. Accessed May 2011.

Kane TJ, Taylor ES, Tyler JH, Wooten AL. 2010. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data. NBER Working Paper 15803. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.gse.harvard.edu/ncte/resources/publications/Identifying_Effective_Classroom_Practices_-_Kane_Taylor_Tyler_Wooten.pdf. Accessed July 2011.

Kane TJ, Staiger DO. 2008. Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement: An Experimental Evaluation. NBER Working Paper 14607. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14607. Accessed May 2011.

Keigher A. 2009. Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary Schools in the United States: Results From the 2007–08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2009-321. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Keigher A, Cross F. 2010. Teacher Attrition and Mobility: Results From the 2008–09 Teacher Follow-up Survey. NCES 2010-353. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Klecker BM. 2008. Is Teacher Quality Related to Eighth-Grade Mathematics Achievement? Evidence from the 2007 NAEP Data. Paper presented at annual meeting of Mid-South Educational Research Association, Knoxville, TN. http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED503409.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

Kober N, Rentner DS. 2011. States' Progress and Challenges in Implementing Common Core State Standards. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy. http://www.cep-dc.org/cfcontent_file.cfm?Attachment=KoberRentner_Report_StateProgressCommonCoreStateStandards_010611.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Loveless T. 2008. High-Achieving Students in the Era of NCLB, Part 1: An Analysis of NAEP Data. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. http://www.edexcellencemedia.net/publications/2008/200806_highachievingstudentsintheeraofnochildleftbehind/20080618_high_achievers.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Lubienski C, Lubienski ST. 2006. Charter, Private, Public Schools and Academic Achievement: New Evidence From NAEP Mathematics Data. New York, NY: National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. http://epsl.asu.edu/epru/articles/EPRU-0601-137-OWI.pdf. Accessed October 2010.

Luft JA. 2009. Beginning secondary science teachers in different induction programs: The first year of teaching. International Journal of Science Education 31(17):2355–84.

Luft JA, Neakrase J, Adams K, Firestone J, Bang EJ. 2010. Bringing content into induction programs: Examples from science. In: Wang J, Odell S, Cliff R, editors. Past, Present, and Future Research on Teacher Induction: An Anthology for Researchers, Policy Makers, and Practitioners. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Ma X, Wilkins JLM. 2007. Mathematics coursework regulates growth in mathematics achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 38(3):230–57.

Matthews MS, Farmer JL. 2008. Factors affecting the algebra I achievement of academically talented learners. Journal of Advanced Academics 19(3):472–501.

McGrath DJ, Holt EW, Seastrom MM. 2005. Qualifications of Public Secondary School Biology Teachers, 1999–2000. NCES 2005-081. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Measures of Effective Teaching. 2010. Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the measures of effective teaching project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/college-ready-education/Documents/preliminary-findings-research-paper.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Metiri Group. 2009. National Trends Report: Enhancing Education Through Technology (EETT) Round 6, Fiscal Year 2007. Washington, DC: The State Educational Technology Directors Association. http://www.setda.org/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=6&name=DLFE- 329.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Milanowski A. 2008. Using Occupational Characteristics Information From O*NET to Identify Occupations for Compensation Comparisons with K–12 Teaching. WCER Working Paper 2008-4. Madison, WI: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, School of Education, University of Wisconsin–Madison. http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/publications/workingpapers/Working_Paper_No_2008_04.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Morton BA, Peltola P, Hurwitz MD, Orlofsky GF, Strizek, GA. 2008. Education and Certification Qualifications of Departmentalized Public High School-Level Teachers of Core Subjects: Evidence from the 2003–04 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2008-338. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

National Academy of Engineering. 2010. Standards for K–12 Engineering Education? Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). 2008. Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: National Assessment Governing Board. http://www.nagb.org/publications/frameworks/science-09.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). 2010. The Nation's Report Card: Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics 2009 National and Pilot State Results. NCES 2011-455. Washington, DC.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). 2011. The Nation's Report Card: Science 2009. NCES 2011-451. Washington, DC.

National Governors Association (NGA). 2005. Graduation Counts: A Report of the National Governors Association Task Force on State High School Graduation Data. Washington, DC. http://www.nga.org/cms/home/nga-center-for-best-practices/center-publications/page-edu-publications/col2-content/main-content-list/graduation-counts-a-report-of-th.html. Accessed May 2011.

National Governors Association (NGA). 2009. Forty-Nine States and Territories Join Common Core Standards Initiative: NGA Center, CCSSO Convene State-led Process to Develop Common English-language arts and Mathematics Standards. News Release. http://www.nga.org/cms/home/news-room/news-releases/page_2009/col2-content/main-content-list/title_forty-nine-states-and-territories-join-common-core-standards-initiative.html. Accessed February 2011.

National Governors Association (NGA). 2010. Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date, 2010. Washington, DC: NGA Center for Best Practices. http://www.nga.org/cms/home/nga-center-for-best-practices/center-publications/page-edu-publications/col2-content/main-content-list/implementing-graduation-2010.html. Accessed May 2011.

National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP). 2008. Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

National Research Council (NRC). 2010. Preparing Teachers: Building Evidence for Sound Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Science Board (NSB). 2008. Science and Engineering Indicators 2008. NSB 08-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

National Science Board (NSB). 2010a. Preparing the Next Generation of STEM Innovators: Identifying and Developing Our Nation's Human Capital. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

National Science Board (NSB). 2010b. Science and Engineering Indicators 2010. NSB 10-01. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Nord C, Roey S, Perkins R, Lyons M, Lemanski N, Brown J, Schuknecht J. 2011. America's High School Graduates: Results of the 2009 NAEP High School Transcript Study. NCES 2011-462. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

The Opportunity Equation. 2011. Common core standards: Why did states choose to adopt? http://opportunityequation.org/standards-and-assessments/common-core-standards-why-did-states. Accessed February 2011.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2009. Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators. Paris, France. http://www.oecd.org/document/24/0,3746,en_2649_39263238_43586328_1_1_1_1,00.html. Accessed October 2010.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2010a. Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators. Paris, France. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/45/39/45926093.pdf. Accessed January 2011.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2010b. Lessons from PISA for the United States, Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education. Paris, France. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/32/50/46623978.pdf. Accessed March 2011.

Pellegrino JW, Jones LR, Mitchell KJ. 1999. Grading the Nation's Report Card: Evaluating NAEP and Transforming the Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Peske HG, Haycock K. 2006. Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students Are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality. Washington, DC: The Education Trust. http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/files/publications/files/TQReportJune2006.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. 2010. Prepare and Inspire: K–12 Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America's Future. Washington, DC: Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-stemed-report.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Rand Corporation. 2006. Effect of Teacher Pay on Student Performance: Findings from Illinois. Santa Monica, CA.

Rice JK. 2010. The Impact of Teacher Experience: Examining the Evidence and Policy Implications. Washington, DC: National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/1001455-impact-teacher-experience.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Richardson V, Placier P. 2001. Teacher change. In: Richardson V, editor. Handbook of Research on Teaching. 4th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Ronfeldt M. 2010. Where Should Student Teachers Learn to Teacher? Effects of Field Placement School Characteristics on Teacher Retention and Effectiveness. Stanford, CA. http://www.stanford.edu/group/irepp/uploads/Where LearnToTeach30Apr2010.pdf. Accessed July 2011.

Rothstein J. 2008. Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement. Working Paper 14442. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14442. Accessed May 2011.

Smith TM. 2007. How do state-level induction and standards-based reform policies affect induction experiences and turnover among new teachers? American Journal of Education 113(2):273–311.

Smith TM, Ingersoll RM. 2004. What are the effects of inductaion and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal 41(3):681–714.

Smith TM, Rowley KJ. 2005. Enhancing commitment or tightening control: The function of teacher professional development in an era of accountability. Educational Policy 19(1):126–54.

Snyder TD, Dillow SA. 2011. Digest of Education Statistics 2010. NCES 2011-015. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Springer MG, Ballou D, Hamilton L, Le V, Lockwood JR, McCaffrey D, Pepper M, Stecher B. 2010. Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching. Nashville, TN: National Center on Performance Incentives at Vanderbilt University. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2010/RAND_RP1416.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Steele JL, Murnane RJ, Willett JB. 2009. Do Financial Incentives Help Low-Performing Schools Attract and Keep Academically Talented Teachers? Evidence from California. Working Paper 14780. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14780. Accessed May 2011.

Stillwell R, Hoffman L. 2008. Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005–06. NCES 2008-353rev. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Subedi BR, Swan B, Hynes MC. 2010. Are School Factors Important for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness? A Multilevel Technique to Predict Student Gains Through a Value-Added Approach. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association, Denver. http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED509792.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Taylor LL. 2008. Comparing teacher salaries: Insights from the U.S. census. Economics of Education Review 27(1):48–57.

Teach for America (TFA). 2006. 2006 Annual Report. New York, NY. http://www.givewell.org/files/unitedstates/TFA/TFA.%20Annual%20Report%202006.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Teach for America (TFA). 2008. 2008 Annual Report: Priorities and Results. New York, NY. http://www.givewell.org/files/unitedstates/TFA/TFA.%20Annual%20Report%202008.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

Teach for America (TFA). 2009. 2009 Annual Report: Priorities and Results. New York, NY. http://s3.amazonaws.com/tfaweb-radiant/assets/92/2009_Annual_Report_070810_rev_original.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

U.S. Department of Education. 2009. Statewide longitudinal data systems. http://www2.ed.gov/programs/slds/factsheet.html. Accessed February 2011.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. 2008. Title I—Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged, Final Rule. 73 Fed. Reg. 64435. Washington, DC.

Vanneman A, Hamilton L, Baldwin AJ, Rahman T. 2009. Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. NCES 2009-455. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Walsh K, Jacobs S. 2007. Alternative Certification Isn't Alternative. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. http://www.nctq.org/p/publications/docs/Alternative_Certification_Isnt_Alternative_20071124023109.pdf. Accessed May 2011.

WestEd. 2010. Technology and Engineering Literacy Framework for the 2014 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Pre-Publication Edition). San Francisco, CA. http://www.nagb.org/publications/frameworks/prepub_naep_tel_framework_2014.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

The White House. n.d. Educate to innovate. http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/education/educate-innovate. Accessed May 2011.

Zeichner KM, Conklin J. 2005. Teacher education programs. In: Cochran-Smith, Zeichner KM, editors. Studying Teacher Education: The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Zimmer R, Buddin R, Chau D, Daley G, Gill B, Guarino C, Hamilton L, Krop C, McCaffrey D, Sandler M, Brewer D. 2003. Charter School Operations and Performance: Evidence from California. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. http://www.lao.ca.gov/2003/rand_charter/053003_rand_charter_schools.pdf. Accessed February 2011.

Zimmer R, Gill B, Booker K, Lavertu S, Sass T, Witte J. 2009. Charter Schools in Eight States: Effects on Achievement, Attainment, Integration, and Competition. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG869.pdf. Accessed October 2010.