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National Science Foundation National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
Contents

General Notes

Data Tables

Appendix A. Technical Notes

Appendix B. Agencies Surveyed: Volumes 27-56

Appendix C. Notes Associated with Agencies Surveyed: Volumes 27-56

Appendix D. FFRDCs, by Agency and Type of Administration

Suggested Citation, Acknowledgments

Errata


Michael Yamaner,
Project Officer
(703) 292-7815
Research and Development Statistics Program

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Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 2006–08

 


Appendix C. Notes Associated with Agencies Surveyed: Volumes 27-56

 

These notes include explanatory information on Federal agencies' reports from volume 27 (which covered FY 1977–79) to volume 56 of the Federal Funds Survey. For volume 56, actual data were collected for FY 2006 and estimates were collected for FY 2007 and 2008.


Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Marketing Service Although the Agricultural Marketing Service was established in April 1972, FY 1979 was the first year in which Congress appropriated funds to this agency.
Data reported for the Agricultural Marketing Service include funds for the Office of Transportation beginning in 1989.
Agricultural Research Service The Human Nutrition Information Service merged with the Agricultural Research Service on 20 February 1994.
Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service The Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service was abolished as of 20 October 1994.
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service The Cooperative State Research Service merged with the Extension Service on 19 October 1994, to become the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, due to reorganization of the Department of Agriculture.
Economic Research Service Data reported for the Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service include programs of the Economic Research Service, the Statistical Reporting Service, and the Farmer Cooperative Service for FY 1977–79.
Data reported for the Economics and Statistics Service include programs of the Economic Research Service and the Statistical Reporting Service for FY 1980.
Economics and Statistics Service Data reported for the Economics and Statistics Service include programs of the Economic Research Service and the Statistical Reporting Service for FY 1980.
Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service Data reported for the Economics, Statistics, and Cooperative Service include programs of the Economic Research Service, the Statistical Reporting Service, and the Farmer Cooperative Service for FY 1977–79.
Federal Grain Inspection Service The Federal Grain Inspection Service was abolished on 20 October 1994, and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration assumed its functions.
Foreign Agricultural Service The Office of International Cooperation and Development became part of the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) in June 1994. Data reported for FAS include funds appropriated to International Cooperation and Development programs within FAS as of FY 1994.
Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration The Federal Grain Inspection Service was abolished on 20 October 1994, and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration assumed its functions.
Human Nutrition Information Service The Human Nutrition Information Service merged with the Agricultural Research Service on 20 February 1994.
Office of International Cooperation and Development The Office of International Cooperation and Development became part of the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) in June 1994. Data reported for FAS include funds appropriated to International Cooperation and Development programs within FAS as of FY 1994.
Office of Transportation Data reported for the Agricultural Marketing Service include funds for the Office of Transportation beginning in 1989.
Rural Business-Cooperative Service This agency's name changed from the Rural Business and Cooperative Development Service to the Rural Business-Cooperative Service on 30 January 1996.
Department of Commerce
Maritime Administration In 1981 the Maritime Administration moved from the Department of Commerce to the Department of Transportation.
National Fire Prevention and Control Administration Functions for the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration transferred from the Department of Commerce to the Federal Emergency Management Agency as of 1 April 1979.
Department of Defense
  Department of Defense (DOD) research has been reported separately from DOD development since volume 40 (FY 1990–92). More than 90% of development reported by DOD for universities and colleges is performed at off-campus, university-affiliated laboratories that are not involved in teaching.
DOD development obligations have been reported in two categories, advanced technology and major systems, since volume 44 (FY 1994–96).
Not all DOD agencies with development obligations are able to categorize them according to the advanced technology and major systems development breakdown. Therefore, in the volume 46 (FY 1996–98) survey cycle, total DOD development does not equal the sum of total DOD advanced technology development and total DOD major systems development.
Beginning with Volume 54 (FY 2004-06), the Department of Defense (DOD) now requires its reporting agencies to adhere to DOD control numbers when providing data to the NSF survey. This new reporting method has slowed DOD's response time to the NSF survey.
Defense Agencies
Chemical and Biological Defense Before FY 2000 R&D of Chemical and Biological Defense was reported with the Washington Headquarters Services.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency This agency's name changed to the Advanced Research Projects Agency on 13 July 1993, and it was changed back to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in February 1996.
Defense Business Transformation Agency The Defense Business Transformation Agency was established on 7 October 2005.
Defense Information Systems Agency Data reported for the Defense Information Systems Agency included data for the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) until FY 2006, when the DTIC became a separate field activity.
Defense Mapping Agency The Defense Mapping Agency merged with the newly created National Imagery and Mapping Agency on 1 October 1996
Defense Special Weapons Agency The Defense Nuclear Agency was renamed the Defense Special Weapons Agency in 1996 as a result of a new charter and an expanded mission.
The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) was established on 1 October 1998. DTRA was formed through a merger of elements of the Office of the Secretary of Defense staff, the Defense Technology Security Administration, the Defense Special Weapons Agency, and the On-Site Inspection Agency.
Defense Technical Information Center In FY 2006 the Defense Technical Information Center became a separate field activity; in prior years, these data were reported as part of the Defense Information Systems Agency.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) was established on 1 October 1998. DTRA was formed through a merger of elements of the Office of the Secretary of Defense staff, the Defense Technology Security Administration, the Defense Special Weapons Agency, and the On-Site Inspection Agency.
Joint Staff The name of this agency changed from Joint Chiefs of Staff to Joint Staff in FY 1986.
National Imagery and Mapping Agency Office of the Secretary of Defense The Defense Mapping Agency merged with the newly created National Imagery and Mapping Agency on 1 October 1996. In FY 2006, Washington Headquarters Service was renamed Office of the Secretary of Defense.
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Data for the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences are included with the Washington Headquarters Services' submission as of volume 45 (FY 1995–97).
Washington Headquarters Services Data for the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences are included with the Washington Headquarters Services' submission as of volume 45 (FY 1995–97).
Public Law No. 103-160, Section 1703 made the Office of the Secretary of Defense responsible for the Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP). Section 1701 requires the creation of CBDP research, development, test, and evaluation program elements established in the FY 1996–97 President's Budget. Data for these new program elements are included in the federal funds survey as of volume 46 (FY 1996–98). Since FY 2000, R&D of Chemical and Biological Defense has been reported separately from the Washington Headquarters Services.
Washington Headquarters Services' basic research data were revised in volume 47 (FY 1997–99) to reflect changes that were not incorporated in volume 46 (FY 1996–98).
In FY 2006, Washington Headquarters Service was renamed Office of the Secretary of Defense.
Defense Civil Preparedness Agency Functions for the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency transferred from the Department of Defense to the Federal Emergency Management Agency on 20 July 1979.
Department of the Army Civil Functions Department of the Army, Civil Functions (Corps of Engineers), development activities are appropriated by the Energy and Water Development Act and therefore cannot be categorized according to the advanced technology and major systems development breakdown. For accounting purposes the funds are shown in the advanced technology total for the Department of the Army.
Operational Test and Evaluation, Director On 7 June 1999 the Secretary of Defense approved the disestablishment of the Office of the Director, Test, Systems Engineering and Evaluation. As a result of the restructure, the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation, assumed management responsibility for the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program and the Test and Evaluation Program, excluding the Joint Test and Evaluation Program.
Test and Evaluation, Deputy Under Secretary
of Defense
On 7 June 1999 the Secretary of Defense approved the disestablishment of the Office of the Director, Test, Systems Engineering and Evaluation. As a result of the restructure, the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation, assumed management responsibility for the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program and the Test and Evaluation Program, excluding the Joint Test and Evaluation Program.
Department of Energy
  In 1977 the Energy Research and Development Administration became part of the Department of Energy.
In January 1996 the Bureau of Mines was abolished, and some of its activities were transferred to the Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy.
Bonneville Power Administration In FY 1982 the Bonneville Power Administration became part of the Department of Energy.
Department of Health and Human Services
Administration on Aging In FY 1991 Human Development Services was replaced by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and by the Administration on Aging (AOA). Since FY 1992 data shown for ACF have been separate from obligations for AOA.
Administration for Children and Families Obligations reported for the Administration for Children and Families may be incomplete for FY 1992 due to unavailability of data.
In FY 1991 Human Development Services was replaced by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and by the Administration on Aging (AOA). Since FY 1992 data shown for ACF have been separate from obligations for AOA.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality In FY 1991 the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research became separate from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.
The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality as stated in the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999, signed by the President on 6 December 1999.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Prior to FY 2000, data reported for the Environmental Protection Agency include R&D data for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Due to reorganization within the Department of Health and Human Services, the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration ceased to exist as of October 1992, and its R&D functions are reported with National Institutes of Health data beginning with FY 1992. However, research support for some fields (such as psychology) in FY 1992 seems to be underreported.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services The Health Care Financing Administration became the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as of 1 July 2001.
Health Care Financing Administration The Health Care Financing Administration became the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as of 1 July 2001.
Human Development Services In FY 1991 Human Development Services was replaced by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and by the Administration on Aging (AOA). Since FY 1992 data shown for ACF have been separate from obligations for AOA.
National Institutes of Health Due to reorganization within the Department of Health and Human Services, the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration ceased to exist as of October 1992, and its R&D functions have been reported with National Institutes of Health data since FY 1992. However, research support for some fields (such as psychology) in FY 1992 seems to be underreported.
In FY 2000 the National Institutes of Health reclassified all of its development activities as research.
NIH has revised its financial database, and beginning with FY 2004, NIH records no longer contain information on field of science and engineering. Data for FY 2004 and later years are not directly comparable to data for FY 2003 and earlier years.
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health In FY 1991 the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research became separate from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health merged with the Office of the Secretary (OS) as of FY 1996. The merger created a new role for the Assistant Secretary for Health, who became head of the Office of Public Health and Science, a new division within OS.
Office of the Secretary The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health merged with the Office of the Secretary (OS) as of FY 1996. The merger created a new role for the Assistant Secretary for Health who became head of the Office of Public Health and Science, a new division within OS.
Office of Public Health and Science The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health merged with the Office of the Secretary (OS) as of FY 1996. The merger created a new role for the Assistant Secretary for Health, who became head of the Office of Public Health and Science, a new division within OS.
Social Security Administration Effective 31 March 1995, the Social Security Administration became an independent agency; it is no longer part of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Data for FY 2003–06 from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) are estimates based on SAMHSA's obligations by program activity budget and previously reported funding for development.
Department of Homeland Security
  On 25 November 2002 the President signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, establishing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS includes the R&D activities previously reported by the Science and Technology Directorate, Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Secret Service.
Science and Technology Directorate The Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) initially existed under the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). In 2005, DHS reorganized, and TSL was moved from TSA to the Science and Technology Directorate.
Department of the Interior
Bonneville Power Administration In FY 1982 the Bonneville Power Administration became part of the Department of Energy.
Bureau of Land Management In January 1996 the Bureau of Mines was abolished, and some of its activities were transferred to the Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy.
Bureau of Mines In January 1996 the Bureau of Mines was abolished, and some of its activities were transferred to the Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy.
Geological Survey The Office of Water Research and Technology has been combined with the Geological Survey since 1985.
Funding for the National Biological Service (NBS) comes from the Geological Survey's congressional appropriation. Since FY 1996, data for the NBS have been included with the Geological Survey's submission.
In January 1996 the Bureau of Mines was abolished, and some of its activities were transferred to the Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy.
National Biological Service The name of the National Biological Survey changed to the National Biological Service (NBS) on 5 January 1995. Since FY 1994 NBS has performed all biological research activities formerly funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service.
Funding for the National Biological Service (NBS) comes from the Geological Survey's congressional appropriation. Since FY 1996, data for the NBS have been included with the Geological Survey's submission.
National Park Service The name of the National Biological Survey changed to the National Biological Service (NBS) on 5 January 1995. Since FY 1994 NBS has performed all biological research activities formerly funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service.
Obligations for FY 2003–08 are for National Park Service's (NPS) natural resources program; data for cultural resources program were not available.
Office of the Secretary The Department of Interior's Office of the Secretary has not funded any R&D activities since FY 1995.
Office of Water Research and Technology The Office of Water Research and Technology has been combined with the Geological Survey since 1985.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service The name of the National Biological Survey changed to the National Biological Service (NBS) on 5 January 1995. Since FY 1994 NBS has performed all biological research activities formerly funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service.
Department of Justice
Bureau of Prisons The Bureau of Prisons was previously listed as the Federal Prison System.
Drug Enforcement Administration Large differences exist between the Drug Enforcement Administration's FY 1996 and 1997 R&D funding amounts due to changes in the agency's R&D programs.
Immigration and Naturalization Service FY 1997–99 figures for the Immigration and Naturalization Service are based on the agency's volume 46 (FY 1996–98) submission.
On 1 March 2003 service and benefit functions of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were transferred to the Department of Homeland Security as the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.
Department of Labor
Labor-Management Relations and Cooperative Programs In 1984 Labor-Management Relations and Cooperative Programs replaced the Labor-Management Services Administration.
Labor-Management Services Administration In 1984 Labor-Management Relations and Cooperative Programs replaced the Labor-Management Services Administration.
Department of State
  The Agency for International Development transferred from the Department of State to the International Development Cooperation Agency on 1 October 1979.
Increases in outlays and obligations reported by the Department of State during the volume 44 (FY 1994–96) survey cycle reflect reporting of moneys received through interagency agreements with the Agency for International Development. The Department of State transfers these outlays and obligations to other R&D performers.
Effective 1 April 1999, all functions and authorities of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency were transferred to the Department of State.
On 1 October 1999, the U.S. Information Agency was integrated into the Department of State.
Agency for International Development The Agency for International Development transferred from the Department of State to the International Development Cooperation Agency on 1 October 1979.
Increases in outlays and obligations reported by the Department of State during the volume 44 (FY 1994–96) survey cycle reflect reporting of moneys received through interagency agreements with the Agency for International Development. The Department of State transfers these outlays and obligations to other R&D performers.
Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, formerly a part of the Federal Highway Administration, was established within the Department of Transportation on 1 January 2000, as stated in the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 (Public Law No. 106-159, 113 Stat. 1748 [9 December 1999]).
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, formerly a part of the Federal Highway Administration, was established within the Department of Transportation on 1 January 2000, as stated in the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 (Public Law No. 106-159, 113 Stat. 1748 [9 December 1999]).
Federal Transit Administration The name of this agency changed from the Urban Mass Transit Administration to the Federal Transit Administration on 18 December 1991.
Maritime Administration In 1981 the Maritime Administration moved from the Department of Commerce to the Department of Transportation.
Since FY 1996, the Maritime Administration has had no directly appropriated funding for R&D activities.
U.S. Coast Guard On 25 November 2002 the President signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, establishing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS includes the R&D activities previously reported by the U.S. Coast Guard.
Department of the Treasury
Internal Revenue Service Due to the reorganization of the Internal Revenue Service and subsequent unavailability of data, FY 1992 figures are taken from estimates made in the volume 41 (FY 1991–93) submission.
Large changes in obligations reported by the Internal Revenue Service for volume 44 (FY 1994–96) are due to shifts in research funding.
Office of Thrift Supervision In 1989 the Federal Home Loan Bank Board was replaced by the Office of Thrift Supervision. In 1990 the Office of Thrift Supervision became part of the Department of the Treasury.
U.S. Customs Service FY 1997–99 figures for the U.S. Customs Service are estimates based on the agency's volume 46 (FY 1996–98) submission. Beginning in FY 2003 the U.S. Customs Service Research & Development program was transferred to other subagencies of the Department of Homeland Security.
U.S. Secret Service On 25 November 2002 the President signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, establishing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS includes the R&D activities previously reported by the U.S. Secret Service.
The U.S. Secret Service was formerly listed as the Office of Protective Research.
Other agencies
Broadcasting Board of Governors The Broadcasting Board of Governors became an independent federal entity on 1 October 1999, as mandated by the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act (Public Law 105-277), signed by the President on 21 October 1998.
Environmental Protection Agency Before FY 2000, data reported for the Environmental Protection Agency included R&D data for the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Federal Emergency Management Agency Functions for the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency transferred from the Department of Defense to the Federal Emergency Management Agency on 20 July 1979.
Functions for the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration transferred from the Department of Commerce to the Federal Emergency Management Agency on 1 April 1979.
General Services Administration Since 1985 the National Archives and Records Administration has been separate from the General Services Administration.
International Development Cooperation Agency The Agency for International Development transferred from the Department of State to the International Development Cooperation Agency on 1 October 1979.
Agency for International Development Increases in outlays and obligations reported by the Department of State during the volume 44 (FY 1994–96) survey cycle reflect reporting of moneys received through interagency agreements with the Agency for International Development. The Department of State transfers these outlays and obligations to other R&D performers.
The Agency for International Development's (AID) new integrated system for budget and accounting records does not contain codes for determining either fields of science and engineering or performer data. The National Science Foundation has estimated these data based on AID's Budget Authority (FY 2000–02) and AID's federal funds survey submission to volume 44 (FY 1994–96). More accurate data for AID will be reported in future volumes of this survey.
The Agency for International Development transferred from the Department of State to the International Development Cooperation Agency on 1 October 1979.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration During the volume 45 (FY 1995–97) survey cycle, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration made a statistical adjustment to the 1994 and 1995 field of science and engineering values to diminish a computational error introduced by its software.
In FY 2000 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration reclassified Space Station as physical asset, reclassified Space Station Research as equipment, and transferred funding for the program from R&D to R&D plant.
Data for FY 2004 and later years may not be directly comparable to data for FY 2003 and earlier years. In FY 2004, NASA implemented a full cost budget approach, which includes all of the direct and indirect costs for procurement, personnel, travel, and other infrastructure related expenses relative to a particular program and project.
In FY 2006, NASA reclassified as operational costs funding for Space Operations, the Hubble Space Telescope, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and the James Webb Space Telescope previously reported as R&D plant.
National Archives and Records Administration Since 1985 the National Archives and Records Administration has been separate from the General Services Administration.
National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation has made changes to its field of science and engineering coding system, producing changes to some of the FY 1996 field of science data (such as mechanical engineering). These changes are reflected in the historical data tables.
Office of Thrift Supervision In 1989 the Federal Home Loan Bank Board was replaced by the Office of Thrift Supervision. In 1990 the Office of Thrift Supervision became part of the Department of the Treasury.
Social Security Administration Effective 31 March 1995 the Social Security Administration became an independent agency; it is no longer part of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Tennessee Valley Authority During the volume 47 (FY 1997–99) survey cycle, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) made adjustments to its 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 R&D values to correct reporting errors. In recent years, most of the funds TVA has reported have been those invested by TVA's Office of Power, rather than congressionally appropriated funds. In addition, a substantial amount of congressionally appropriated funds earmarked for environmental compliance and site restoration was erroneously reported as R&D in past years. TVA has determined that these funds do not meet the criteria for classification as R&D spending. Some trend shifts are related to these adjustments, since TVA can only make revisions as far back as 1996.
U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency FY 1994 figures for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency are estimates based on the agency's volume 43 (FY 1993–95) submission.
Effective 1 April 1999, all functions and authorities of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency were transferred to the Department of State.
U.S. Information Agency Data reported for the U.S. Information Agency include funds for the former International Communication Agency for FY 1977–81.
On 1 October 1999, the U.S. Information Agency was integrated into the Department of State.
U.S. International Trade Commission In 2000 the U.S. International Trade Commission stopped classifying any of its activities as R&D.

Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development.

 
Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 2006–08
Detailed Statistical Tables | NSF 10-303 | October 2009

Notes:

From FY 2000 to FY 2007 Department of the Air Force (AF) did not report BA 6.7 Operational Systems Development data to the Survey of Federal Funds for R&D because the agency misunderstood reporting requirements. During the Volume 57 data collection cycle AF corrected this error. Tables 1–5, 8, 11, 14, 49, 80, 82–85, 87–90, 92, 95, 97, 99, 103, 105, 115, 116, 120, 129  have been replaced with corrected versions.