U.S. Baccalaureate Institutions
- Leading Baccalaureate Institutions. Fifty institutions, mostly those with large enrollments, accounted for more than one-third of the baccalaureate degrees earned by individuals who later earned doctorates. Oberlin College was the only small, nondoctorate-granting institution ranked in the top 50 baccalaureate institutions of Ph.D.s who graduated between 1920 and 1999.
- Top Institutions of Men and Women. The lists of top 50 institutions of men and women who received doctorates between 1920 and 1999 had 34 institutions in common.
- Research-Intensive Universities. Research-intensive institutions were less prominent in women's than in men's undergraduate educations; among racial and ethnic groups, research-intensive universities figured prominently in the undergraduate educations of Asians/Pacific Islanders.
- Top Institutions of U.S. Citizen American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Many of the top baccalaureate institutions of U.S. American Indian/Alaskan Native Ph.D.s were in the southwestern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of the United States.
- Top Institutions of U.S. Citizen Asians/Pacific Islanders. Among U.S. Asians/Pacific Islanders who earned doctorates between 1975 and 1999, 62 percent received baccalaureates from the top 50 institutions for this demographic group.
- Top Institutions of U.S. Citizen Blacks. More than 42 percent of all U.S. blacks who received doctorates between 1975 and 1999 earned bachelor's degrees at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs).
- Top Institutions of U.S. Citizen Hispanics. Forty-three of the top 50 institutions of U.S. Hispanics who earned doctorates between 1975 and 1999 were in states or territories with large Hispanic populations—Arizona, California, Florida, New Mexico, New York, Puerto Rico, and Texas.
U.S. Doctoral Institutions
The path to the doctorate begins with undergraduate institutions. Almost all doctorate recipients earn a bachelor's degree before the doctorate. Their baccalaureate institutions range from large doctorate-granting universities to small liberal arts colleges. By tracing the flow of students from baccalaureate to doctorate, one can see both breadth and concentration in U.S. higher education. Breadth is evident in the wide range of baccalaureate institutions of Ph.D.s and in the presence of doctorate-granting institutions in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Concentration is evident in the large proportion of Ph.D.s with baccalaureates and doctorates from a relatively small set of institutions. The information about student flows documents the expansion of doctoral education to all demographic groups.
This chapter continues the discussion of the path to the doctorate begun in chapter 4. U.S. institutions where Ph.D.s received their bachelor's and doctoral degrees are examined in the context of doctoral fields and demographic characteristics of Ph.D.s. More than 1,600 U.S. institutions awarded baccalaureates to the Ph.D.s of the 20th century, and 426 institutions granted their doctorates. The leading colleges and universities, in terms of the number of Ph.D.s who received baccalaureates or doctorates from these institutions, are presented within this chapter and in appendix tables.1
U.S. Baccalaureate Institutions
About 1.1 million of the 1.35 million individuals who received doctorates between 1920 and 1999 earned baccalaureates in the United States.2 More than 1,600 U.S. institutions are represented among the baccalaureate institutions of these Ph.D.s. The majority of Ph.D.s who graduated in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s earned baccalaureates at private colleges and universities, but the share of degrees earned at private institutions generally declined throughout the century (figure 5-1 ). Beginning in the 1950s, public institutions accounted for the majority of bachelor's degrees awarded to doctorate recipients.
Leading Baccalaureate Institutions
Ph.D.s completed their bachelor's degrees in a relatively small number of institutions. Of the more than 1,600 U.S. institutions that awarded bachelor's degrees to individuals who earned doctorates between 1920 and 1999, the top 50 (based on the number of Ph.D.s who received baccalaureates from these institutions) accounted for more than 33 percent of these degrees (figure 5-2 ). Thirty-two of the top 50 institutions were publicly controlled and 18 were privately controlled.3 Oberlin College was the single small, nondoctorate-granting institution ranked in the top 50 baccalaureate institutions of Ph.D.s.
Large institutions have dominated the baccalaureate institutions of Ph.D.s because of the sheer volume of their student enrollments and graduates. When, however, institutional size is controlled for by enrollments or total output of baccalaureates to arrive at a measure of doctoral productivity, several liberal arts colleges rank with research-intensive universities (those classified as Research I and Research II institutions by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; see table 5-11 ) as leading baccalaureate institutions. In terms of the proportion of its baccalaureate recipients who eventually earn a doctorate, Harvey Mudd College is one of the most productive small institutions. Harvey Mudd has an annual enrollment of fewer than 700 students, yet it awarded baccalaureates to 757 individuals who received doctorates between 1920 and 1999.
Ph.D.s who graduated in 1920–24 were much more concentrated in their leading baccalaureate institutions than were Ph.D.s who graduated in 1995–99 (table 5-1 , appendix table B-1). During the eight decades between 1920 and 1999, many universities, particularly in the public sector, experienced major growth in student enrollments and degree programs. As a result, some institutions ranked much higher as baccalaureate institutions among recent Ph.D.s than among all Ph.D.s in the full period from 1920 to 1999. The University of Texas-Austin, for example, placed higher on the list for Ph.D.s graduating in 1995–99 than on the 1920–99 list, and Harvard University ranked lower in 1995–99 than in the full period.
Top Institutions of S&E and Non-S&E Ph.D.s
The top 50 baccalaureate institutions of S&E Ph.D.s in the period 1920 to 1999 accounted for about 39 percent of bachelor's degrees awarded to this group (appendix table B-2). The corresponding percentage for the 1995–99 Ph.D. cohort was slightly less, at 37 percent.
Non-S&E Ph.D.s were less highly concentrated than S&E Ph.D.s in their top 50 baccalaureate institutions (appendix table B-3). Overall about 28 percent of non-S&E Ph.D.s graduating between 1920 and 1999 had received bachelor's degrees from those 50 institutions.
Oberlin College was the only small, nondoctorate-granting college to place among the top 50 baccalaureate institutions of both S&E and non-S&E Ph.D.s. It ranked 32nd among non-S&E Ph.D.s and 44th among S&E Ph.D.s between 1920 and 1999. Placing lower but in the top 100 were Wellesley, Barnard, and Wheaton (Illinois) among non-S&E Ph.D.s, and Swarthmore, Carleton, and Reed among S&E Ph.D.s.
Top Institutions of Men and Women
Research-intensive institutions figured prominently among the top 50 baccalaureate institutions of both men and women who went on for doctorates, but less so for women. Among Ph.D.s graduating between 1920 and 1999, men's top 50 baccalaureate institutions accounted for about 35 percent of their undergraduate degrees, and women's top 50 baccalaureate institutions accounted for 32 percent of their undergraduate degrees (appendix tables B-4, B-5). The top 5 baccalaureate institutions for male and female Ph.D.s had considerable overlap (table 5-2 ).
The top 50 baccalaureate institutions of male Ph.D.s and of female Ph.D.s between 1920 and 1999 had 34 institutions in common, although they ranked differently on the two lists. Several of the institutions on the top 50 list for women but not on the top 50 list for men enrolled only women during many of the years when future Ph.D.s were receiving their undergraduate education (Kane, Anzovin, and Podell 1997:174).4 The institutions appearing only on the 1920–99 list of men's top baccalaureate institutions include some technical institutions and some schools that changed to coeducational status in the later decades of the century.
By the end of the 20th century, the lists of the 50 top baccalaureate institutions for male and for female Ph.D.s were converging, with 40 institutions appearing on both lists in 1995–99 (compare appendix tables B-4, B-5).
Top Institutions of Racial and Ethnic Groups
The collection of data on race/ethnicity did not begin until 1975, but data since then have shown that the characteristics of baccalaureate institutions differ among U.S. citizen racial/ethnic groups (tables 5-3 through 5-7).
Research-intensive institutions played a less prominent role in the undergraduate education of blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives than in the undergraduate education of whites and Asians/Pacific Islanders. Location, on the other hand, seems to have played a significant role for underrepresented minorities.
American Indians/Alaskan Natives
The baccalaureate institutions of American Indian/Alaskan Native Ph.D.s reflect the geographic distributions of these populations, especially the American Indian population, in the United States (appendix table B-6). Institutions located in the southwestern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of the United States figured prominently among the top 50 baccalaureate institutions of this group. The top 5 institutions awarded nearly one-tenth of the baccalaureates received by American Indian/Alaskan Native Ph.D.s in both 1975–99 and 1995–99 (table 5-3 ).
Large, research-intensive universities ranked high among the baccalaureate institutions of Asian/Pacific Islander Ph.D.s. The population centers of Asians/Pacific Islanders are reflected in their top baccalaureate institutions; 15 of the top 50 institutions on the 1975–99 list were in California, as were 2 of the top 5 institutions (table 5-4 , appendix table B-7). The composition of the leading baccalaureate institutions of Asians/Pacific Islanders also reflects the group's greater concentration in S&E fields, as shown by the prevalence of technical institutions, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology and California Institute of Technology, among their top institutions. Small, nondoctorate-granting colleges, such as Pomona College, San Jose State University, and Wellesley College, were also prominent among the baccalaureate institutions of Asians/Pacific Islanders.
Asians/Pacific Islanders were more heavily concentrated in their leading baccalaureate institutions than whites were in theirs. For the entire 1975–99 period, the concentration of Asians/Pacific Islanders in their top 50 baccalaureate institutions was 62 percent (double that of whites).
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), most of them in southern states, have been among the leading baccalaureate institutions of black Ph.D.s. These schools constituted the top 5 baccalaureate institutions of black Ph.D.s in both 1975–99 and 1995–99 (table 5-5 ). The 105 accredited HBCUs, ranging from 2-year colleges to doctorate-granting universities, were established during the period of reconstruction following the American Civil War and subsequent periods of racial segregation through 1963 for the express purpose of educating blacks (White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities 2002; USED/NCES 1985, 1996; NSF 1975–2000, 1990).
HBCUs occupied 33 of the top 50 positions on the list of baccalaureate institutions of U.S. black Ph.D.s who graduated between 1975 and 1999 (appendix table B-8). Howard University, an HBCU, occupied the first position, by a wide margin, for both the periods 1975–99 and 1995–99. Howard was the first university established for blacks under legal segregation to have undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools (Kane, Anzovin, and Podell 1997:174). Forty-one percent of blacks who earned doctorates in the period 1975–99 received their bachelor's degrees from among the 50 top-listed institutions.
In the last quarter of the 20th century, 25,872 blacks earned doctorates. More than 42 percent of those who had a baccalaureate received that degree from an HBCU, although the percentage of black Ph.D.s whose baccalaureate institution was an HBCU was lower in the late 1990s (31 percent) than it was in the late 1970s (56 percent) (figure 5-3 ). HBCUs also played a significant role in the undergraduate education of black foreign nationals who earned bachelor's degrees in the United States on their way to the doctorate. About one-fifth (21 percent) of foreign black Ph.D.s graduating in the last quarter-century earned their baccalaureates at HBCUs.
Although this chapter focuses on the baccalaureate and doctoral institutions of Ph.D.s, the role of HBCUs at the master's degree level is worth noting. For the overall period from 1975 to 1999, more than 17 percent of black Ph.D.s with master's degrees earned those degrees at HBCUs. A downward trend, however, similar to that noted for baccalaureate origins is evident: 15 percent of black Ph.D.s graduating in the 1995–99 period received master's degrees from HBCUs compared with 19 percent of Ph.D.s 20 years earlier, in 1975–79 (figure 5-3 ).
Location has played a major role in the undergraduate education of Hispanic Ph.D.s. Of the 50 institutions awarding the largest number of bachelor's degrees to Hispanics who earned doctorates between 1975 and 1999, 43 were in states or territories with large Hispanic populations—Arizona, California, Florida, New Mexico, New York, Puerto Rico, and Texas. These institutions accounted for more than half (53 percent) of the bachelor's degrees awarded to Hispanic Ph.D.s who graduated in the periods 1975–99 and 1995–99 (appendix table B-9). The top 5 institutions awarded 20 percent of the baccalaureates received by Hispanic Ph.D.s (table 5-6 ).
Most of the leading baccalaureate institutions of white Ph.D.s in the 20th century were large, public, research-intensive universities (table 5-7 , appendix table B-10). The top 50 institutions awarded bachelor's degrees to almost one-third (31 percent) of all whites who received doctorates between 1975 and 1999.
U.S. Doctoral Institutions
By a wide majority, most students in the 20th century decided to pursue the doctorate at an institution other than their baccalaureate institution. Of the 1,068,144 Ph.D.s who graduated in 1920–99 and who earned bachelor's degrees in the United States, only 15 percent received their doctorate and their baccalaureate from the same institution. This proportion was even less (12 percent) at the close of the century.
Regions and States
In the early 1920s, institutions in only 26 states and the District of Columbia awarded doctorates, and the institutions were largely concentrated in the northeastern and midwestern regions of the country (figure 5-4 ). After World War II, doctoral education in the South and West grew substantially, and by the mid-1960s, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico had at least one institution that granted doctorates (figure 5-5 ).
A comparison of the leading doctorate-producing states in 1920–24 and 1995–99 reveals both stability and change. New York and Illinois stayed in the select group of leading states over time, yet the share of doctorates awarded in the top 5 states declined considerably (table 5-8 , appendix table B-11). In 1995–99 California ranked first in production of both S&E and non-S&E doctorates (appendix table B-12).
Year of First Conferred Doctorate
The first institutions to confer doctorates have remained prominent in terms of the number of doctorates they awarded in subsequent time periods. The year in which an institution conferred its first doctorate provides one measure of the dynamics of the doctoral enterprise.
Yale University conferred the first three U.S. doctorates in 1861. From that beginning, the number of doctoral institutions grew to 50 during the first two decades of the 20th century (figure 5-6 ). A total of 426 institutions awarded doctorates between 1861 and 1999. Over the years, a few of these institutions closed, and some merged with other institutions or discontinued their doctoral programs. A few institutions with small doctoral programs did not confer doctorates every year. In the period 1995–99, 401 institutions awarded doctorates; 392 institutions awarded doctorates in 1999. The greatest 5-year period of growth was from 1970 to 1974, when 62 institutions granted doctorates for the first time.
Because it usually takes many years before new doctoral institutions award a large number of doctorates, the institutions with older, established doctoral programs remained prominent, and newer institutions only gradually increased their share of doctorates. Thus, even as new institutions joined the doctoral pool, the 50 institutions that granted doctorates before 1920 continued to award the majority of doctorates up to the final quarter-century. Their share of doctorates slowly diminished over the course of the century but was still about 40 percent in 1995–99 (figure 5-7 ). In contrast, the 119 institutions that awarded their first doctorates during the last quarter-century accounted for about 5 percent of all doctorates in 1995–99.
The first institutions of higher education in Colonial America were privately controlled. Following independence from England, the states began to establish state universities, which became the first public institutions of higher education in the United States.
The First and Second Morrill Acts gave a strong impetus to the expansion of public colleges in the 19th century. The First Morrill Act of 1862 led to the establishment of what became known as land-grant universities (NASULGC 1999). The Second Morrill Act of 1890 expanded the 1862 system of land-grant universities to include black colleges in 17 southern and border states (USDA 2003). After World War II there was further rapid growth of public higher education, particularly at the doctoral level.
The majority of doctoral institutions in the first half of the century were privately controlled; in the last half of the century, public institutions were in the majority and by the 1990s represented 54 percent of all doctorate-granting institutions. There was a corresponding shift in the share of doctorates awarded by public and private institutions, and this shift occurred in both S&E and non-S&E fields (figures 5-8 , 5-9 ). Among the top 50 institutions of Ph.D.s graduating in 1995–99, 15 were privately controlled, compared with 29 in the early 1920s (appendix table B-13). With the growth in public institutions and their share of degrees at all levels, increasing percentages of Ph.D.s earned both their baccalaureate and their doctorate at public institutions (figure 5-10 ).
The percentage of doctoral degrees awarded by public institutions was similar among men, women, U.S. citizens, and foreign nationals (table 5-9 ). Among U.S. citizens, the small increase in the percentage of Ph.D.s graduating from public institutions from the late 1970s to the late 1990s can be attributed solely to white Ph.D.s (table 5-10 ). For each of the U.S. minority groups, there was a small increase in the percentage of Ph.D.s earning doctorates at private institutions.
Institutions that award doctorates have been described in terms of their programs, purposes, and research activity. The 1994 version of the widely used system established by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was used in this report to classify institutions of Ph.D.s who graduated in 1990–99 (table 5-11 ). Thus, the data reflect the classification of institutions in 1994.
Most Ph.D.s in the 20th century earned their doctorates at Research I and Research II institutions. There was a slight shift from Research I and II institutions to Doctoral II and other institutions during the 1990s (figure 5-11 ). S&E Ph.D.s (72 percent) were more likely than non-S&E Ph.D.s (61 percent) to receive their degrees from Research I institutions (table 5-12 ).
Because of men's greater concentration in S&E fields, it is not surprising that men (71 percent) were more likely than women (64 percent) to earn doctorates at Research I institutions in the 1990s (figure 5-12 ). Research I institutions were also prominent in the education of foreign students, awarding doctorates to nearly three-fourths of non-U.S.-citizen Ph.D.s, compared with two-thirds of U.S.-citizen Ph.D.s. Of the U.S. racial/ethnic groups, Asians/Pacific Islanders were the most likely to hold doctorates from Research I institutions (76 percent), and blacks (56 percent) and American Indians/Alaskan Natives (54 percent) were the least likely (figure 5-13 ).
Leading Doctoral Institutions
Although 426 institutions awarded doctorates in the 20th century, Ph.D.s were highly concentrated in a relatively small number of institutions. The top 50 doctoral institutions, based on the number of degrees conferred, accounted for about three-fifths of all doctorates awarded between 1920 and 1999 (figure 5-14 ). Differential growth in doctoral programs during this 80-year span caused shifts in the institutions constituting the top 10 doctoral institutions and significantly lessened the concentration of awards in a few institutions (table 5-13 ).
Top Institutions of S&E and Non-S&E Ph.D.s
During the 20th century more institutions awarded doctorates in non-S&E fields (402, or 94 percent of doctorate-granting institutions) than in S&E fields (372, or 87 percent of doctorate-granting institutions). Furthermore, the leading institutions, based on number of doctorates awarded, were different for S&E and non-S&E Ph.D.s (table 5-14 , appendix tables B-14, B-15). There was no overlap in the top 5 institutions of S&E and of non-S&E Ph.D.s in the overall period from 1920 to 1999.
Although the number of S&E doctorates awarded by the top 5 institutions for S&E Ph.D.s in 1920–99 was much larger than the number of non-S&E doctorates awarded by the top 5 institutions for non-S&E Ph.D.s, the cumulative shares of doctorates for these institutions were similar. The top 5 institutions on the S&E list conferred 13 percent of all S&E doctorates in 1920–99, a figure only slightly higher than the 11 percent of non-S&E doctorates awarded by the top 5 institutions on the non-S&E list. When these lists are extended to the top 50 institutions for each field, the difference between the shares is miniscule. The percentage of S&E doctorates granted by the top 50 institutions for S&E Ph.D.s was about the same as that granted by the top 50 institutions for non-S&E Ph.D.s (63 percent).
Doctoral Institutions of Men and Women
Opportunities for graduate education, particularly for women, expanded substantially during the 20th century. Most doctoral institutions have from their beginnings awarded degrees to men. For example, in 1920–24, 97 percent of the 60 doctorate institutions awarded doctorates to men, whereas 70 percent awarded doctorates to women. With the large increase over the decades in the number of doctorate-granting institutions and the removal of many barriers to the entry of women into doctoral programs, nearly all institutions were awarding doctorates to women by the end of the century. In 1995–99, 394 (about 98 percent) of the 401 doctorate-granting institutions of that period awarded doctorates to women, and all of them awarded doctorates to men. Women were somewhat less concentrated in their top institutions than men were in theirs (appendix tables B-16, B-17).
Top Institutions of Racial and Ethnical Groups
During the last quarter-century, nearly all doctoral institutions awarded doctorates to whites; three-fourths granted doctorates to Asians/Pacific Islanders, blacks, and Hispanics; and more than half granted doctorates to American Indians/Alaskan Natives.
American Indians/Alaskan Natives
Persons who identified themselves as American Indian/Alaskan Native earned 2,722 doctorates from 274 institutions during the period 1975–99 (appendix table B-18). Consequently, for the entire period, the number of doctorates per top 50 institution for American Indians/Alaskan Natives was small, ranging from a high of 93 to a low of 16. Moreover, although many of the top institutions were located in American Indian population centers, they were spread across 30 states—11 in the Midwest, 9 in the South, 7 in the West, and 3 in the Northeast.
Asians/Pacific Islanders were markedly more concentrated than other minority groups and whites in their respective top doctoral institutions (appendix table B-19). Almost two-thirds (65 percent) of Asians/Pacific Islanders who earned doctorates between 1975 and 1999 received their degrees from their top 50 institutions. The top 5 doctoral institutions of Asians/Pacific Islanders accounted for nearly one-fifth (just under 18 percent) of all doctorates awarded to the group in 1975–99.
The top 50 institutions of blacks conferred 61 percent of their doctorates from 1975 to 1999 (appendix table B-20). Three of the top 50 institutions were HBCUs. In the periods 1975–99 and 1995–99, blacks' concentration in their top 50 institutions was greater than that for whites, about the same as that for American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and less than that for Asians/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics.
Over the years, HBCUs increased their role in the doctoral education of black Ph.D.s. The only doctorate-granting HBCUs in 1975 were Howard University and Clark Atlanta University. By the end of the century an additional 13 HBCUs were awarding doctorates (figure 5-15 ). In 1995–99, 9 percent (631) of all black Ph.D.s earned their doctorates at HBCUs, more than three times the percentage (3 percent) and more than four times the number (147) in 1975–79.
Although HBCUs primarily serve the black U.S. citizen population, the focus is shifting (table 5-15 ). In 1975–79, black foreign citizens constituted the second largest group to receive doctorates from HBCUs (24 percent), following black U.S. citizens (56 percent). There was greater diversity in the citizenship status and race/ethnicity of HBCU graduates at the end of the century. By 1995–99, black U.S. citizens earned 60 percent, and black foreign citizens 12 percent, of the doctorates earned at HBCUs. White U.S. citizens were the second largest group in 1995–99, receiving about one-sixth (18 percent) of all HBCU doctorates.
After Asians/Pacific Islanders, Hispanics were the most highly concentrated group with respect to their top 50 institutions. More than three of every five Hispanic Ph.D.s received doctorates from the top 50 institutions on their list, both in the overall 1975–99 period and in the 1995–99 period (appendix table B-21).
Many of the institutions that awarded the largest numbers of doctorates to Hispanics were in places that have large Hispanic populations—Arizona, California, Florida, New Mexico, New York, Puerto Rico, and Texas.
More than half (54 percent) of all whites who received doctorates between 1975 and 1999 graduated from the top 50 institutions on their list, and 9 percent graduated from the top 5 institutions (appendix table B-22).
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 1994. A Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Princeton, NJ.
Kane, J.N., S. Anzovin, and J. Podell. 1997. Famous First Facts: A Record of First Happenings, Discoveries, and Inventions in American History. 5th ed. New York: H.W. Wilson Company.
National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC). 1999. The land-grant tradition. http://www.nasulgc.org/publications/Land_Grant/Land_Grant_Main.htm. Accessed April 2005.
National Science Foundation (NSF). 1975–2000. Women, Minorities, and Persons With Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 1973…2000. Biennial series. Arlington, VA.
National Science Foundation (NSF). 1990. Selected Data on Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Academic Year 1988. Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2003. 1890 land grant universities. http://www.reeusda.gov/1890. Accessed March 2003.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (USED/NCES). 1985. The traditionally black institutions of higher education, 1860 to 1982. Washington, DC. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=84308. Accessed April 2005.
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (USED/NCES). 1996. Historically Black Colleges and Universities, 1976–1994. Washington, DC.
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1 Tables in the text compare the top 5 institutions of Ph.D.s across all years with the top 5 institutions of Ph.D.s who graduated in 1995–99. The discussion covers the top 50 institutions; those lists are included in appendix B for reference. Tables listing all institutions can be found with the detailed supplemental tables for this report on the NSF website at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06319/.
2 The discussion in this section is limited to institutions located in the United States. Foreign nationals who earned baccalaureates at U.S. institutions are included. All Ph.D.s (foreign citizens and U.S. citizens) who received baccalaureates from foreign institutions are excluded. For the top 26 baccalaureate institutions of foreign citizens, see table 33 at http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/issues/sed-2003.pdf (accessed 11 April 2005).
3 Cornell University is listed in this report as a private school, as it is by the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. The report includes doctorates from both the private and public sides of Cornell.
4 Mount Holyoke College, for example, was the first women's college in the United States, opening in 1837 as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Mount Holyoke ranked 26th among the baccalaureate institutions of women who received doctorates between 1920 and 1999.