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State Research and Development Expenditures Total $1.2 Billion in FY 2009

NSF 12-324 | July 2012 | PDF format. PDF  
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by Michael Yamaner[1]

State agency expenditures for research and development totaled $1.2 billion in FY 2009.[2] This represents an increase of 7% over the FY 2007 total of $1.1 billion.[3] Expenditures on R&D facilities (construction projects, major building renovations, land and building acquisitions intended primarily for R&D use) totaled $103 million (table 1), a 2% increase over the $101 million reported in FY 2007. This InfoBrief presents summary statistics from the FY 2009 Survey of State Government R&D Expenditures, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

TABLE 1. State agency expenditures for R&D and R&D facilities: FY 2009
(Thousands of dollars)
Characteristic Expenditures
All R&D and R&D facilities expenditures 1,312,728
R&D facilities 102,614
R&D 1,210,114
Source of funds
Federal government 298,111
State and other sources 912,002
Performer
State agency 318,264
Academic institutions 530,354
Companies and individuals 255,889
Other 105,606
Character of work
Basic research 275,566
Applied R&D 934,547
Type
Agriculture 66,749
Environment and natural resources 318,359
Health 284,145
Transportation 243,798
Othera 297,062

a Includes R&D in other areas, such as corrections, education, energy, labor, public safety, and social services.

NOTE: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Government R&D, FY 2009.

Table 1 Source Data: Excel file

The FY 2009 survey is the most recent NSF survey of R&D activities performed and funded by state government agencies in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. For the first time, NSF is publishing survey data by individual state agency. Previously only state totals were published. This survey also marked the first time NSF asked state agencies to classify their R&D according to the following five types:

  • Agriculture: animal health; aquaculture; crop management; food and commodities; forestry
  • Environment and Natural Resources: air and water quality; fish, game, and wildlife; marine and aquatic environments; geological survey; parks and preserves; soil and water conservation
  • Health: biomedical research; mental health and addiction; public health
  • Transportation: highways, roads, and bridges; ports and waterways; public transportation; rail and freight; aviation
  • Other: R&D in other areas, such as corrections, education, energy, labor, public safety, and social services

Nationwide Totals

In addition to the $1.2 billion on R&D, state agencies also expended $103 million on R&D facilities, for a total of $1.3 billion in FY 2009. State or other nonfederal sources funded 75% of this R&D; federal sources funded 25%. The majority of the states' R&D expenditures (74%) went to external performers, primarily to academic institutions ($530 million). State agencies internally performed 26% of all state agency R&D in FY 2009 (table 1).

Of the $1.2 billion that state agencies expended on R&D in FY 2009, 77% ($935 million) went to applied R&D (applied research plus development) and 23% ($276 million) supported basic research. The share expended on each type of R&D varied considerably by state. Further, state agencies reported that environment and natural resource R&D projects accounted for most (26%) of their expenditures, followed by health (23%), transportation (20%), and agriculture (6%). All other projects combined accounted for 25% of total R&D expenditures (table 1).

State-by-State Reporting

The level of R&D expenditures reported by state agencies ranged from $0.5 million in the District of Columbia to $147 million in California. Five states (California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Florida) accounted for 47% of all state agency R&D expenditures (table 2). These states also topped the list in FY 2007.[4]

TABLE 2. State agency expenditures for R&D, by state and performer: FY 2009
(Thousands of dollars)
State All R&D
expenditures
Internal
performers
% of
total
External
performers
% of total State All R&D
expenditures
Internal
performers
% of
total
External
performers
% of
total
United States 1,210,114 318,264 26 891,849 74 Montana 7,200 1,305 18 5,896 82
Alabama 12,929 9,139 71 3,790 29 Nebraska 4,475 125 3 4,350 97
Alaska 7,741 6,387 83 1,354 17 Nevada 1,511 343 23 1,168 77
Arizona 21,483 7,373 34 14,110 66 New Hampshire 2,187 1,022 47 1,164 53
Arkansas 11,766 768 7 10,997 93 New Jersey 15,147 4,278 28 10,869 72
California 146,793 25,144 17 121,649 83 New Mexico 1,656 536 32 1,120 68
Colorado 14,850 9,396 63 5,454 37 New York 126,122 35,114 28 91,008 72
Connecticut 27,088 12,663 47 14,425 53 North Carolina 51,404 42,451 83 8,953 17
Delaware 2,067 1,021 49 1,045 51 North Dakota 16,423 576 4 15,848 96
District of Columbia 487 0 0 487 100 Ohio 121,852 4,310 4 117,542 96
Florida 66,514 10,356 16 56,157 84 Oklahoma 15,931 2,710 17 13,221 83
Georgia 6,663 3,500 53 3,163 47 Oregon 12,429 6,390 51 6,039 49
Hawaii 13,976 3,268 23 10,708 77 Pennsylvania 102,958 2,992 3 99,966 97
Idaho 6,052 1,897 31 4,155 69 Rhode Island 1,383 0 0 1,383 100
Illinois 19,656 5,446 28 14,211 72 South Carolina 28,600 24,162 84 4,438 16
Indiana 47,550 942 2 46,608 98 South Dakota 4,607 424 9 4,183 91
Iowa 11,285 954 8 10,331 92 Tennessee 3,882 129 3 3,753 97
Kansas 12,305 1,598 13 10,707 87 Texas 49,381 4,764 10 44,617 90
Kentucky 13,939 6,242 45 7,697 55 Utah 26,443 10,716 41 15,727 59
Louisiana 8,427 5,021 60 3,406 40 Vermont 739 739 100 0 0
Maine 6,400 1,567 24 4,833 76 Virginia 17,930 8,759 49 9,170 51
Maryland 21,093 5,683 27 15,410 73 Washington 14,529 6,941 48 7,588 52
Massachusetts 4,358 1,113 26 3,245 74 West Virginia 10,357 2,555 25 7,802 75
Michigan 14,951 7,851 53 7,100 47 Wisconsin 24,942 5,329 21 19,613 79
Minnesota 16,656 1,975 12 14,681 88 Wyoming 7,195 4,670 65 2,525 35
Mississippi 9,732 8,216 84 1,516 16
Missouri 16,070 9,406 59 6,665 41

NOTES: Internal performers include department/agency's own employees and services performed by others in support of internal R&D projects. External performers include academic institutions, companies and individuals, and other non-internal performers. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Survey of State Government R&D includes the District of Columbia.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Government R&D, FY 2009.

Table 2 Source Data: Excel file

North Carolina and New York reported the greatest amount of funding for internal state agency R&D ($42 million and $35 million, respectively). These two states accounted for 24% of internal state agency R&D performance ($318 million) in FY 2009. State agencies in California ($122 million) and Ohio ($118 million) reported the largest levels of funding for external R&D performance, accounting for 27% of all state agency R&D expenditures ($892 million) to external performers in FY 2009 (table 2).

State Agency Shares

The top five states in order of their total R&D expenditures in FY 2009 are California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Florida (table 3). In California and New York, agencies involved with energy spent the most on R&D in FY 2009, accounting for 60% and 33%, respectively, of their state totals. In Ohio, the Department of Development, which has multiple programmatic responsibilities, spent $111 million on R&D ($0.8 million on environment and natural resources, $41 million on health, $6 million on transportation, and $63 million on other), which accounted for 91% of the state's total R&D expenditures in FY 2009. The Departments of Health in Pennsylvania and Florida accounted for the largest shares of those states' total R&D expenditures (67% and 27%, respectively).

TABLE 3. R&D expenditures for selected states, by department, state, and type of R&D: FY 2009
(Dollars)
State and department or agency All R&D expenditures Agriculture Environment
and natural
resources
Health Transportation Othera
United States 1,210,113,524 66,748,642 318,359,498 284,144,944 243,798,130 297,062,310
California 146,793,247 6,235,149 23,701,098 0 40,057,000 76,800,000
Energy Commission 88,700,000 0 11,900,000 0 0 76,800,000
Food and Agriculture, Department of 7,587,842 5,485,149 2,102,693 0 0 0
Transportation, Department of 40,057,000 0 0 0 40,057,000 0
Water Resources, Department of 10,448,405 750,000 9,698,405 0 0 0
New York 126,122,333 1,869,720 22,642,345 46,038,312 12,445,993 43,125,963
Agriculture and Markets, Department of 3,487,006 987,006 0 2,500,000 0 0
Energy Research and Development Authority 42,170,407 774,714 13,025,991 330,312 7,796,776 20,242,614
Environmental Conservation, Department of 5,851,093 108,000 5,635,093 108,000 0 0
Health, Department of 32,200,000 0 0 32,200,000 0 0
Science, Technology and Innovation, Foundation for 35,283,349 0 1,500,000 10,900,000 0 22,883,349
Transportation, Department of 7,130,478 0 2,481,261 0 4,649,217 0
Ohio 121,851,617 0 6,306,109 41,320,535 10,308,223 63,916,750
Air Quality Development Authority 3,503,551 0 3,503,551 0 0 0
Development, Department of 111,125,353 0 765,000 41,320,535 5,702,500 63,337,318
Education, Department of 456,654 0 0 0 0 456,654
Natural Resources, Department of 2,160,336 0 2,037,558 0 0 122,778
Transportation, Department of 4,605,723 0 0 0 4,605,723 0
Pennsylvania 102,958,404 852,734 9,395,553 73,403,595 5,815,684 13,490,838
Agriculture, Department of 852,734 852,734 0 0 0 0
Community and Economic Development, Department of 17,755,250 0 2,600,000 3,955,000 0 11,200,250
Conservation and Natural Resources, Department of 4,613,826 0 4,613,826 0 0 0
Environmental Protection, Department of 2,938,656 0 523,068 0 125,000 2,290,588
Fish and Boat Commission 60,901 0 60,901 0 0 0
Game Commission 1,597,758 0 1,597,758 0 0 0
Health, Department of 69,448,595 0 0 69,448,595 0 0
Transportation, Department of 5,690,684 0 0 0 5,690,684 0
Florida 66,513,756 19,410,440 17,934,886 18,478,377 9,830,053 860,000
Agriculture and Consumer Services, Department of 9,346,686 6,758,977 2,587,709 0 0 0
Citrus, Department of 12,171,000 12,171,000 0 0 0 0
Environmental Protection, Department of 8,237,640 480,463 7,057,177 0 0 700,000
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission 8,290,000 0 8,290,000 0 0 0
Health, Department of 18,180,877 0 0 18,180,877 0 0
Space Florida 457,500 0 0 297,500 0 160,000
Transportation, Department of 9,830,053 0 0 0 9,830,053 0

a Includes R&D in other areas, such as corrections, education, energy, labor, public safety, and social services.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of State Government R&D, FY 2009.

Table 3 Source Data: Excel file

Data Notes and Availability

All 50 states and the District of Columbia participated in the FY 2009 survey, and 422 of the agencies surveyed (96%) responded. (Puerto Rico reported to the FY 2007 survey but was unable to identify a state coordinator in time to respond to the FY 2009 survey.) The U.S. Census Bureau collected the data for the FY 2009 survey.

The amounts reported through this survey are for R&D expenditures that flow through state agency budgets; they do not include direct appropriations from state legislatures to universities, colleges, and private organizations. As a result, the $530 million in expenditures reported by state agencies to support R&D performance by academic institutions (table 1) differs from the figure reported by universities and colleges in FY 2009 ($3.6 billion) for expenditures on R&D activities that were funded from state and local government sources.[5] This difference is largely attributable to the funding provided by direct appropriations from state legislatures to state-run universities, which is reported in the NSF Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges but not in the Survey of State Government R&D Expenditures. Another likely reason for the difference is the exclusion of R&D at agricultural experiment stations from the totals reported by state agencies.

The data reported through this survey focus exclusively on R&D expenditures by state departments, agencies, commissions, and dependent entities, with the exception of state-run colleges and universities. Several industry-specific state commissions, which are generally chartered by state legislatures but are administered independently, were considered state agencies and included in the survey. Universities, colleges, or other higher education entities surveyed under the Academic R&D Expenditures Survey were considered out of scope as respondents for this effort, as were laboratories and experiment stations controlled by state universities and entities determined to be nonprofit or private organizations, as classified by the Census Bureau's Government Finance and Employment Classification Manual.

A full set of detailed tables from this survey will be available in the report State Government Research and Development: Fiscal Year 2009 at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/staterd/. For further information, please contact the author.

Notes

[1]  Michael Yamaner, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965, Arlington, VA 22230 (myamaner@nsf.gov; 703-292-7815).

[2]  The terms "state" and "state agencies," used for brevity in this report, include activities and organizations within the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

[3]  Data for 2007 in this report are from the most recently completed survey cycle. When completing the current-year survey, survey respondents may revise their prior-year data.

[4]  Bennof R. 2009. Ten States Account for More than 60% of State Agencies' FY 2007 R&D Expenditures. InfoBrief NSF 10-306. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf10306/.

[5]  National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2011. Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2009. Detailed Statistical Tables NSF 11-313. Arlington, VA. Available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf11313/.


National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
State Research and Development Expenditures Total $1.2 Billion in FY 2009
Arlington, VA (NSF 12-324) [July 2012]


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