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Racial and Ethnic Diversity among U.S.-Educated Science, Engineering, and Health Doctorate Recipients: Methods of Reporting Diversity


NSF 12-304 | January 2012 | PDF format. PDF  
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by Lynn M. Milan and Thomas B. Hoffer[1]

This InfoBrief describes two common methods for tabulating race and ethnicity and uses these methods to present the racial diversity and the Hispanic or Latino origins of the science, engineering, and health (SEH) doctoral population.[2] In this report, the SEH doctoral population comprises individuals in the United States who hold a research doctorate from a U.S. academic institution in an SEH field. In 2008, 98.8% of the estimated 752,000 members of this population reported being a single race, and 1.2% reported being two or more races.

The percentage of Hispanic doctorate holders increased between 2001 and 2008 among individuals in the SEH doctoral population who were U.S. citizens or permanent residents.[3] Among those without Hispanic origins, Asian and black or African American doctorate holders who reported being a single race also increased from 2001 to 2008, but the percentage of individuals reporting multiple race combinations remained virtually unchanged.[4] Individuals who reported being American Indian or Alaska Native and those who reported being Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander were more likely than others not of Hispanic ethnicity to report being two or more races.

Collecting Data on Race and Ethnicity

In 1997, to reflect the nation's increasing diversity, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised the federal guidelines for collecting and tabulating data on race/ethnicity to allow individuals the option to self-identify with more than one race (see http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards). Beginning in 2001 the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) incorporated OMB's revised guidelines into its survey questionnaires.[5] Respondents could report their ethnicity by selecting from two categories: (1) Hispanic or Latino or (2) not Hispanic or Latino. Respondents could report their race by selecting one or more of the following five categories: (1) American Indian or Alaska Native, (2) Asian, (3) black or African American, (4) Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and (5) white. Figure 1 shows the wording of questions from the 2008 SDR Web survey.[6]

FIGURE 1. Questions on Hispanic origin and race from the Web version of the 2008 Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

  Figure 1 Source Data: Word file

Tabulating Data on Race and Ethnicity

Agencies and researchers have tabulated data on race/ethnicity in various ways over the years. This InfoBrief uses two common practices to capture the detailed distributions of race/ethnicity within the doctoral population.[7]

Minimum Number Reporting Each Race

The first reporting practice results in counts that sum to the total population. Each individual's self-reported race is represented among mutually exclusive categories. The categories are based on the reporting of just one race, as well as combinations of more than one race. Those who report one race alone are categorized into the following five groups:

  • American Indian or Alaska Native alone
  • Asian alone
  • Black or African American alone
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander alone
  • White alone

Those who report more than one race represent one of the 26 possible combinations of the five racial groups. These individuals can be described in terms of their specific, self-reported multiple-race combinations (e.g., Asian and white, black and white, or Asian and black and white) or simply grouped into categories representing the number of races with which they identify (e.g., with two races or with three or more races).

When this reporting practice is applied to the 2008 SDR, 98.8% of doctorate holders reported a single race and 1.2% reported two or more races (table 1). Although the absolute number of SEH doctorate recipients identifying two or more races increased between 2001 and 2008, so did the overall SEH doctoral population; as a result, the percentage of individuals indicating multiple races did not change.

TABLE 1. Doctorate recipients in science, engineering, and health fields reporting one or more races, by U.S. citizenship status: 2001, 2003, 2006, and 2008
U.S. citizenship status and race 2001 2003 2006 2008
All doctorate recipients 656,500 685,300 711,800 752,000
Single race 649,000 676,900 703,400 742,700
2 races 7,000 7,700 7,700 8,600
3 or more races 600600 700700
U.S. citizens 597,300622,600 644,000675,200
Single race 590,200 614,700 636,100 666,200
2 races 6,500 7,300 7,300 8,300
3 or more races 500 600 600 700
Permanent residents 42,100 42,400 43,000 49,800
Single race 41,700 42,100 42,700 49,600
2 races 400 300 300 200
3 or more races D D D D
Temporary residents 17,200 20,200 24,800 26,900
Single race 17,000 20,100 24,700 26,800
2 races 100200 100100
3 or more races D D D D

D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information.

NOTES: Numbers represent weighted counts and are rounded to nearest 100. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to totals.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

  Table 1 Source Data: Excel file

Citizenship Status. Of the 752,000 SEH doctorate holders in 2008, a total of 725,000 (96.4%) were U.S. citizens or permanent residents and 26,900 (3.6%) were temporary residents. Because the distribution of race and ethnicity differs by citizenship status, we describe these differences briefly before focusing solely on U.S. citizens and permanent residents.

In 2008, 1.3% of U.S. citizens reported more than one race, whereas less than 1% of permanent residents (0.4%) and temporary residents (0.4%) did so (table 1). The overall increase from 2001 to 2008 in the number of all SEH doctorate holders reporting more than one race was entirely a reflection of the trend among those who were U.S. citizens (7,000 to 9,000) (table 1).

In 2008 more than half of the permanent residents reported Asian alone (58.4%), 38.0% reported white alone, and 3.2% reported black alone. Among temporary residents 73.2% reported Asian alone, 24.2% reported white alone, and 2.2% reported black alone. (Data not shown.)

U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents: Single-Race. Generally, the SDR and other surveys that report on race and ethnicity classify all individuals who report Hispanic origin as Hispanic (regardless of reported race) and classify all others according to the single race or multiple races identified by the respondents. Overall, 98.9% of the 2008 U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctoral population was categorized as either Hispanic (regardless of racial background) or of a single race (table 2).

TABLE 2. U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients in science, engineering, and health fields reporting each race, by Hispanic ethnicity: 2001, 2003, 2006, and 2008
Race/ethnicity 20012003 20062008
All U.S. citizens and permanent residents 639,400665,100687,000725,000
Hispanic or Latino (any race)15,30016,60018,70020,900
Single race14,50015,80017,70019,800
American Indian or Alaska Native200200200300
Asian 100200200200
Black or African American 300300300500
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander D D D D
White13,90015,10016,90018,800
2 races (3 most frequent plus other combinations)600600800900
American Indian or Alaska Native and white200300400400
Asian and white100100100100
Black or African American and white200200300300
All other combinations of 2 races * D100100
3 or more races200200200200
Not Hispanic or Latino624,100648,500668,300704,100
Single race617,400641,100661,100696,100
American Indian or Alaska Native1,1001,1001,4001,500
Asian 82,60092,60094,400107,600
Black or African American14,70016,40018,60020,600
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander600500700700
White518,400530,400545,900565,600
2 races (5 most frequent plus other combinations)6,3007,0006,8007,500
American Indian or Alaska Native and black or African American200200200200
American Indian or Alaska Native and white3,2003,5003,5003,600
Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander400400300400
Asian and white1,8002,2002,0002,500
Black or African American and white400500500600
All other combinations of 2 races300200300300
3 or more races400500500500

* = value < 50; D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information.

NOTES: Numbers represent weighted counts and are rounded to nearest 100. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to totals.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

  Table 2 Source Data: Excel file

Among respondents to the SDR who were not Hispanic, the largest single race reported in 2008 was white (80.3%) followed by Asian (15.3%) (table 2). The number of respondents reporting a single race increased from 2001 to 2008, but relative growth was lowest for whites. In 2001, 81.1% of respondents were white (518,400 of 639,400), and although the number of whites increased in 2008, the percentage of whites fell to 78.0% (565,600 of 725,000). In contrast, the percentage of Asians increased from 12.9% of the population in 2001 to 14.8% in 2008, and the percentage of blacks increased from 2.3% in 2001 to 2.8% in 2008 (table 2).

As a percentage of the U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctoral population, Hispanics increased from 2.4% (15,300) in 2001 to 2.9% (20,900) in 2008; 90.0% reported white alone in 2008 (table 2).

U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents: Multiple-Race. Multiple-race identifications in the doctoral population were relatively rare compared with single-race identifications. Among U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients in 2008 who were not Hispanic, a total of 8,000 (1.1%) reported being two or more races. Of these, the most common combinations were American Indian or Alaska Native and white (3,600 of 8,000, or 45.0%) and Asian and white (2,500 of 8,000, or 31.3%) (table 2). Of the 7,300 individuals in the five most frequent racial combinations that excluded Hispanic ethnicity, 6,700 (91.8%) included white as one of the reported races (table 2). Hispanic doctorate recipients were more likely than doctorate recipients who were not Hispanic to report two or more races (5.3% versus 1.1%).

Maximum Number Reporting Each Race

A second reporting practice results in the maximum number of people reporting a particular race, because it includes all who reported that race alone or in combination with one or more of the other races. This type of aggregation represents all respondents who identified themselves as entirely or partially of that race. Therefore, the five race categories are not mutually exclusive (i.e., individuals reporting two or more races are counted in each reported group).

Among U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients in 2008 who were not Hispanic, individuals identifying in two racial groups, American Indian or Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, were more likely than others to report being two or more races (figure 2). A total of 5,600 SEH doctorate recipients reported having an American Indian or Alaska Native racial background, but only 1,500 of the 5,600 (26.8%) reported that race alone. A total of 3,600 (64.3%) reported being American Indian or Alaska Native and white, and 500 (8.9%) identified other combinations of races that included American Indian or Alaska Native (figure 2).

FIGURE 2. Single- and multiple-race identification among U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients who are not of Hispanic ethnicity: 2008.

  Figure 2 Source Data: Excel file

Similarly, among the 1,500 individuals self-reporting as Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 700 (46.7%) identified solely as that race (figure 2). "White" was identified as their single other race by 200 (13.3%) individuals. Nearly all of the 600 individuals reporting other multiple-race combinations reported Asian as one of their races.

In contrast, much higher percentages of those who identified themselves as Asian, black, or white reported one race alone (figure 2). In 2008, of the 110,900 reporting Asian race, 97.0% reported it alone and 2.3% reported Asian and white. Among the 21,800 persons who identified as black, 94.5% reported that race alone and 2.8% reported black and white. Of the 572,900 identifying as white, 98.7% indicated white alone (figure 2 and table 3).

TABLE 3. U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients who are not of Hispanic ethnicity in science, engineering, and health fields reporting each race alone or in combination: 2001, 2003, 2006, and 2008
Race2001200320062008
All U.S. citizens and permanent residents who are not Hispanic624,100648,500668,300704,100
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone or in combinationa4,8005,1005,4005,600
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone1,1001,1001,4001,500
American Indian or Alaska Native and one or more other races 3,7004,0004,0004,100
Asian, alone or in combinationa85,10095,50097,100110,900
Asian, alone 82,60092,60094,400107,600
Asian and one or more other races2,6002,9002,7003,300
Black or African American, alone or in combinationa15,70017,50019,70021,800
Black or African American, alone14,70016,40018,60020,600
Black or African American and one or more other races1,0001,1001,1001,200
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone or in combinationa1,3001,2001,4001,500
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone600500700700
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and one or more other races700700700700
White, alone or in combinationa524,400537,200552,700572,900
White, alone518,400530,400545,900565,600
White and one or more other races6,0006,8006,7007,300

a Because respondents could report more than one race, the sum of race categories exceeds the total number of individuals.

NOTES: Numbers represent weighted counts and are rounded to nearest 100. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to totals.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

  Table 3 Source Data: Excel file

For American Indians and Alaska Natives and for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, it is important to note that although the minimum numbers (single race alone) and maximum numbers (single race alone or in combination with one or more other races) differ substantially, the percentages of the population from these two reporting practices yield similar results because of the relatively small numbers in the total doctorate recipient population identifying as these races.

Characteristics of SEH Doctorate Recipients

The remainder of this report describes the SEH doctoral population using the mutually exclusive reporting categories of single race and multiple race (minimum number reporting each race); however, tables 4–6 present both the minimum and maximum values for comparison purposes.

Sex
Among all U.S. citizens and permanent residents who held an SEH doctorate from a U.S. institution in 2008, 30.3% were women. Women made up 40.7% of those who reported Hispanic ethnicity and 30.0% of those who did not (table 4). Among individuals who were not Hispanic and who reported being just one race, 45.1% of blacks were women compared with 30.0% of whites and 26.5% of Asians. Women were a higher percentage of Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders (42.9%) than of Asians (26.5%).

TABLE 4. U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients in science, engineering, and health fields reporting each race alone or in combination, by Hispanic ethnicity, sex, and age: 2008
Sex Age
Race/ethnicityAllMaleFemaleUnder 3535–3940–4950–5960+
All U.S. citizens and permanent residents725,000505,200219,80054,60081,800180,900191,800215,800
Single race715,900499,700216,20053,60080,700178,400189,500213,600
2 or more races9,1005,5003,6001,1001,1002,5002,3002,200
Hispanic or Latino20,90012,4008,5002,6003,5006,3005,1003,500
Single race19,80011,9007,9002,4003,3005,9004,8003,400
White18,80011,4007,3002,3003,1005,6004,6003,200
All other races1,000500500100200300200200
2 or more races1,100500600200100400300100
Not Hispanic or Latino704,100492,800211,30052,00078,300174,600186,700212,400
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone or in combinationa5,6003,6002,0003005001,2001,7001,900
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone1,5001,000500 S200300400500
American Indian or Alaska Native and one or more other races4,1002,6001,5002003009001,3001,400
Asian, alone or in combinationa110,90081,30029,6009,70019,10040,60024,00017,400
Asian, alone107,60079,10028,5009,20018,50039,70023,30016,900
Asian and one or more other races3,3002,2001,1006006001,000600500
Black or African American, alone or in combinationa21,80011,8009,9002,2003,1005,5006,3004,700
Black or African American, alone20,60011,2009,3002,1003,0005,2006,0004,300
Black or African American and one or more other races1,200600600100200300200400
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone or in combinationa1,500900600200200500300300
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone700500300200200300100100
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and one or more other races700400300100100200200200
White, alone or in combinationa572,900400,600172,30040,50056,400129,000156,700190,400
White, alone565,600396,000169,70039,70055,500127,100154,900188,500
White and one or more other races7,3004,6002,7008009001,9001,8001,900

S = suppressed for reliability; coefficient of variation exceeds publication standards.

a Because respondents could report more than one race, the sum of race categories exceeds the total number of individuals.

NOTES: Numbers represent weighted counts and are rounded to nearest 100. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to totals.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients: 2008.

  Table 4 Source Data: Excel file

Women made up a greater percentage of those reporting two or more races (39.6%) than of those reporting a single race (30.2%) (table 4). This may be due, in part, to the greater percentage of women in the more recent doctoral cohorts and a greater percentage of individuals identifying multiple races from those newer cohorts.

Age
Overall, doctorate holders younger than 35 were more likely than older doctorate holders to report multiple races. This age group comprised 12.1% of the multiple-race identifiers compared with 7.5% of the single-race identifiers (table 4). Specifically, among individuals who were younger than 35 years and not Hispanic, the percentage identifying multiple races was significantly greater than the percentage identifying a single race among Asians (18.2% versus 8.6%) and whites (11.0% versus 7.0%).

Among individuals not of Hispanic ethnicity who were 60 years or older in 2008, the percentage of single-race whites (33.3%) was greater than the percentage of single-race Asians (15.7%), blacks (20.9%), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (14.3%). Single-race whites were also a larger percentage in this age group than were individuals identifying Hispanic ethnicity, regardless of race (16.7%) (table 4).

Field of Doctorate
In 2008, the percentage of U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients who identified as Hispanic or as a single race differed across the field of study groupings (table 5). The percentage of blacks in the physical sciences (9.7%) was lower than the percentage of Hispanics (14.8%), Asians (19.8%), or whites (18.9%). The percentages of Asians in psychology and social sciences (2.9% and 6.1%, respectively) were lower than the percentages of Hispanics (20.1% and 15.3%), blacks (22.8% and 22.8%), or whites (17.3% and 13.7%). The percentage of Asians in engineering (34.7%) was much higher than the percentage of Hispanics (14.4%), blacks (11.2%), or whites (13.9%) in engineering.[8]

TABLE 5. U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients in science, engineering, and health fields reporting each race alone or in combination, by Hispanic ethnicity and field of study: 2008
Race/ethnicity All fieldsBiological/
agricultural/
environmental
life sciences
Computer/ information sciencesMathematics/ statisticsPhysical sciencesPsy- chologySocial SciencesEngineeringHealth
All U.S. citizens and permanent residents725,000182,00015,40033,900134,600111,70093,900122,20031,200
Single race715,900179,60015,20033,700133,100110,10092,300121,00030,800
2 or more races9,1002,4002002001,5001,6001,6001,200500
Hispanic or Latino20,9005,5004008003,1004,2003,2003,000900
Single race19,8005,3003008002,8003,9002,9002,900800
White18,8005,0003007002,7003,7002,7002,800700
All other races1,000300 D D100200200100 *
2 or more races1,100200 D D300300200100100
Not Hispanic or Latino704,100176,50015,10033,100131,500107,50090,700119,20030,400
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone or in combinationa5,6001,500 D1008001,2001,200400300
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone1,500400 D D200300400 S100
American Indian or Alaska Native and one or more other races4,1001,100 D100600900800300200
Asian, alone or in combinationa110,90026,5004,6006,10021,8003,4007,00037,9003,500
Asian, alone107,60025,5004,5005,90021,3003,1006,60037,3003,400
Asian and one or more other races3,3001,000200100600300400600100
Black or African American, alone or in combinationaa21,8004,4003007002,1005,0005,0002,5001,900
Black or African American, alone20,6004,2003007002,0004,7004,7002,3001,800
Black or African American and one or more other races1,200300 D D100200300200100
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone or in combinationa1,500500 D D300200200200100
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone700200 D D200100100100 D
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and one or more other races700300 D D100 D100100100
White, alone or in combinationa572,900146,10010,20026,500107,80099,20078,80079,40025,000
White, alone565,600144,10010,00026,300106,70097,90077,60078,40024,700
White and one or more other races7,3002,0002002001,1001,3001,2001,000300

* = value < 50. D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information. S = suppressed for reliability; coefficient of variation exceeds publication standards.

a Because respondents could report more than one race, the sum of race categories exceeds the total number of individuals.

NOTES: Numbers represent weighted counts and are rounded to nearest 100. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to totals.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients: 2008.

  Table 5 Source Data: Excel file

Individuals reporting multiple races were less likely than single-race identifiers to have earned doctorates in mathematics and statistics (2.2% versus 4.7%) and in engineering (13.2% versus 16.9%), and they were more likely than single-race identifiers to have earned doctorates in social sciences (17.6% versus 12.9%). In other fields of study the likelihood of earning an SEH doctorate was not significantly different between identifiers of single and multiple races.

Employment Sector
In 2008, universities and 4-year colleges had the largest number (237,400) of full-time employed SEH doctorate holders who were U.S. citizens or permanent residents, followed by the private for-profit sector (184,000). Full-time employed doctorate holders who identified as Hispanic or as a single race differed in how they were distributed across the employment sectors (table 6). A smaller percentage of single-race Asians were employed by universities and 4-year colleges (30.9%) compared with Hispanics (50.9%), blacks (51.2%), and whites (44.9%). In contrast, a higher percentage of Asians were employed in the private for-profit sector (52.6%) compared with Hispanics (25.1%), blacks (19.3%), and whites (29.9%).

TABLE 6. U.S. citizen and permanent resident doctorate recipients in science, engineering, and health fields reporting each race alone or in combination, by Hispanic ethnicity and employment sector: 2008
Race/ethnicityAllUniversities and 4-year collegesPrivate for-profitSelf-employedPrivate not-for-profitFederal governmentState and local governmentOthera
All full-time employed U.S. citizens and permanent residents552,900237,400184,00020,10035,50041,60016,80017,700
Single race545,500233,800181,90019,90034,90041,00016,40017,600
2 or more races7,5003,5002,100200500600400100
Hispanic or Latino17,1008,7004,3004001,0001,100700900
Single race16,2008,1004,1004001,0001,100600900
White15,4007,8003,9004009001,100600800
All other races800400200 D D D D100
2 or more races1,000500200 D * D100100
Not Hispanic or Latino535,800228,700179,70019,60034,50040,50016,10016,700
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone or in combinationb4,5002,0001,400200200400300 D
American Indian or Alaska Native, alone1,200500300100 D100 S D
American Indian or Alaska Native and one or more other races3,3001,5001,000100100300200 D
Asian, alone or in combinationb95,80030,00049,8001,6005,4005,4002,5001,200
Asian, alone93,10028,80049,0001,5005,0005,2002,4001,100
Asian and one or more other races2,7001,200800 S300200100 D
Black or African American, alone or in combinationb17,6009,2003,3005001,0001,5001,0001,100
Black or African American, alone16,6008,5003,2005001,0001,4009001,100
Black or African American and one or more other races1,000700100 D D100100 D
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone or in combinationb1,200600300 D100100 * D
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, alone600300200 D100100 D D
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and one or more other races600300100 D D D D D
White, alone or in combinationb423,800190,300126,80017,50028,30033,80012,60014,500
White, alone417,900187,600125,00017,40027,90033,20012,30014,400
White and one or more other races6,0002,7001,800100500600300 S

* = value < 50. D = suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information. S = suppressed for reliability; coefficient of variation exceeds publication standards.

a Includes mainly individuals employed by preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary schools or systems and individuals employed by 2-year colleges, community colleges, or technical institutes, as well as a small number whose employment did not correspond to these or the other categories.

b Because respondents could report more than one race, the sum of race categories exceeds the total number of individuals.

NOTES: Numbers represent weighted counts and are rounded to nearest 100. Due to rounding, numbers may not sum to totals.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients: 2008.

  Table 6 Source Data: Excel file

Multiple-race reporters were not significantly more or less likely than single-race reporters to work in academe or to work in the private for-profit sector, either overall or within most racial/ethnic groups. The only exception to this was among Asians, where single-race reporters were less likely than multiple-race reporters to work in academe (30.9% versus 44.4%) and more likely to work in the private for-profit sector (52.6% versus 29.6%).

Data Sources and Limitations

Information in this InfoBrief is from the 2008, 2006, 2003, and 2001 cycles of the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR). The data on race and ethnicity presented in this report were provided as responses to the SDR by respondents as well as responses assigned during the data editing and imputation processes. Of the 29,974 respondents in the 2008 SDR, 383 had ethnicity and/or race imputed (1.3%).

Numbers in this InfoBrief represent weighted counts and are rounded to the nearest 100. The percentages presented in the text are based on the rounded counts presented in the tables. Because of the rounding, the subtotal counts may not sum to the total counts in the tables and the percentages calculated from those counts may not sum to 100%. All differences stated in this report are significant at the 95% level. Significance tests were performed on unrounded statistics.

The SDR has been conducted every 2 years since 1973 (with a 3-year period between 2003 and 2006) and is sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health, and other federal agencies on an occasional basis. The SDR is a longitudinal study of individuals who have received research doctorate degrees from U.S. academic institutions in SEH fields and are living in the United States on the survey reference date. SEH fields include biological/agricultural/environmental life sciences, computer and information sciences, mathematics and statistics, the physical sciences, psychology, the social sciences, engineering, and health fields.

The survey follows a sample of individuals with SEH doctorates throughout their careers from the year of their degree award through age 75; the total sample size for the 2008 survey was 40,093, of which 81% completed the questionnaire. The panel is refreshed in each survey cycle with a sample of new SEH doctoral degree earners selected from another NSF-sponsored survey, the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED). The SED is a census of all individuals who receive a research doctorate from a U.S. institution in a given academic year (1 July of one year through 30 June of the following year). For the 2008 cycle a sample of individuals from the SED who were younger than 76 years and who earned SEH doctoral degrees in academic years 2006 and 2007 was added to the existing 2006 survey panel.

Notes

[1]  Lynn M. Milan, Human Resources Statistics Program (HRS), National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965, Arlington, VA 22230 (lmilan@nsf.gov; 703-292-2275). Thomas B. Hoffer, NORC at the University of Chicago, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. With significant contributions by Lance Selfa and Carolina Milesi, NORC, and Emilda Rivers, HRS. For more information, contact Lynn Milan.

[2]  The two tabulation methods show the minimum and the maximum number of respondents self-identifying with each race.

[3]  In this report "Hispanic or Latino" is used interchangeably with "Hispanic." Individuals who report Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are reported as "Hispanic," regardless of race.

[4]  In this report "black or African American" is used interchangeably with "black."

[5]  Due to the change in collection guidelines, data on race/ethnicity collected by the SDR prior to 2001 are not directly comparable to data collected in 2001 and later.

[6]  In the 2001 SDR, the question wording was slightly different from that used in 2003, 2006, and 2008. In 2001 the questions read:

Are you Hispanic (or Latino)? - Yes - No

[If Hispanic] Which of the following describes your Hispanic origin or descent?
- Mexican American or Chicano
- Puerto Rican
- Cuban
- Other Hispanic —
      Specify–›__________

What is your racial background?
Mark (X) one or more.
- American Indian or Alaska Native —
      Specify tribal affiliation(s)–›__________
- Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
- Asian
- Black or African-American
- White

[7]  Findings for the general population are available in Humes KR, Jones NA, Ramirez RR. March 2011. 2010 Census Briefs: Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf. Accessed 13 June 2011.

[8]  Differences involving American Indians or Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders were not statistically significant, reflecting the small numbers of cases in these two groups.


National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics
Racial and Ethnic Diversity among U.S.-Educated Science, Engineering, and Health Doctorate Recipients: Methods of Reporting Diversity
Arlington, VA (NSF 12-304) [November 2011]


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