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Glossary and Key to Acronyms

Applied research.  Systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding to meet a specific, recognized need.

Asia-8.  India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand.

Asia-10.  China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand.

Basic research.  Systematic study to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without specific applications in mind.

Development.  Systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including the design and development of prototypes and processes.

GDP.  Gross domestic product. The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country within a given period of time.

EU.  The 27 member nations of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

High-technology manufacturing.  Manufacturing in five industries, identified by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, that have particularly strong linkages to science and technology: aerospace, communications and semiconductors, computers and office machinery, pharmaceuticals, and scientific instruments.

Knowledge-intensive economy.  Economies in which research, its commercial exploitation, and intellectual work play a substantial role.

MNC.  Multinational company.

NAEP.  National Assessment of Educational Progress.

NCSES.  National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation.

NSB.  National Science Board.

NSF.  National Science Foundation.

OECD.  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

PISA.  Program for International Student Assessment.

R&D.  Research and development.

R&D intensity.  R&D as a proportion of gross domestic product.

S&E.  Science and engineering.

S&T.  Science and technology.

STEM.  Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

SEI.  Science and Engineering Indicators.

Underrepresented minority.  Members of racial and ethnic groups that have traditionally been underrepresented in science and engineering, including blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

Value-added.  Sales minus the cost of purchased domestic and foreign inputs and materials.


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