This figure illustrates the connections between cellular processes and engineered systems for the photosynthetic bio-refinery.

Figure 1. The photosynthetic biorefinery.

Photosynthetic organisms use carbon dioxide (CO2) as a carbon source and sunlight as the energy source to drive the reduction of CO2 into energy-rich molecules, which can be subsequently converted to fuels, chemicals, and bio-products.

Cellular processes are harnesses, controlled, and intensified within an engineered system.

Life cycle analysis addresses the sustainability of the engineered system from environmental and ecological perspectives.


This figure appears in NSF 12-553, Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI)
1. Flexible Bioelectronics Systems (BioFlex)
2. Origami Design for Integration of Self-assembling Systems for Engineering Innovation (ODISSEI)
3. Photosynthetic Biorefineries (PSBR)