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News From the Field
Force Is the Key to Granular State-shifting

February 15, 2013

granular material composed of photo-elastic disks Ever wonder why sand can both run through an hourglass like a liquid and be solid enough to support buildings? It's because granular materials--like sand or dirt--can change their behavior, or state. Researchers from North Carolina State University have found that the forces individual grains exert on one another is what most affects this transition. Full Story

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North Carolina State University

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2014, its budget is $7.2 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 50,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes about 11,500 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $593 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

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