A Panoply of Applications
Computer graphics has entered just about every aspect of modern life. The information age has become an age of imagesa new hieroglyphics containing more content and promising greater understanding than ever before. Among the key areas of modern business, industrial, and academic activity that have been revolutionized in the last forty years are those listed here.
Architecture & Engineering. Building design, space planning, real estate analyses, interior architecture and design, construction management, cost-estimating integrated with design and drafting, procurement, facilities management, furniture and equipment management, and needs forecasting.
Biomedical Applications. Surgical and radiation therapy planning, diagnostic aids, prostheses manufacturing, studies of morphology and physiology, molecular modeling, computerized tomography (CT scans), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MRI), and teaching of surgical techniques.
Business & Management Graphics. Decision-making systems, graphical data displays, presentation graphics systems, visual information systems, C3I (command, control, communication, and information systems), financial graphics systems, and business and scientific charts and graphs.
Education & Learning. Techniques for developing visual thinking skills and creative abilities in both children and adults; science and mathematics instruction; architecture, engineering, and design instruction; arts instruction; and development of the electronic classroom based on research findings on the cognitive, motivational, and pedagogic effects of computer graphics.
Electric CAD/CAM. Printed wiring board and integrated circuit design, symbol construction, schematic generation, knowledge-based systems in electronic design and simulation, advanced systems for chip and circuit design, circuit analysis, logic simulation, electronic fabrication and assembly, and test set design.
Human Factors & User Interfaces. Advances in the visual presentation of information; graphical software development tools and visible language programming; improvements in screen layout, windows, icons, typography, and animation; and alternative input devices, iconographic menus, improvements in color graphics displays, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
Manufacturing. Computer-aided design (CAD), manufacturing (CAM), and engineering (CAE); computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), numerical control (NC) in CAD/CAM, robotics, and managing the flow of manufacturing information from design to field services; manufactured parts, buildings, and structures; and integrating CIM with CAD.
Mapping & Cartography. Geographic information systems (GIS) and graphical databases; computer-assisted cartography; engineering mapping applications in transportation and utility fields; computer-assisted map analysis; 3-D mapping techniques; management systems for industrial, office, and utility sites and cross-country facilities such as transmission lines; military and civilian government facilities management; natural and man-made resource mapping; and land planning, land development, and transportation engineering.
Pattern Recognition & Image Processing. Feature selection and extraction; scene matching; video inspection; cartographic identifications; radar-to-optical scene matching; industrial and defense applications; analysis and problem solving in medicine, geology, robotics, and manufacturing; computer vision for automated inspection; and image restoration and enhancement.
Printing & Publishing. Integration of text and graphics in printed documents, technical documentation created from engineering drawings, technical publishing systems, on-line documentation systems, page layout software, scanning systems, direct-to-plate printing capabilities, and computer-assisted design systems for publication design and layout.
Statistical Graphics. Graphical techniques for rendering large masses of data to increase understanding, graphical techniques for data analysis, graphical display techniques, graphical interaction techniques, and multivariable data analysis.
Video & Multimedia Technology. High definition television; computer-generated video for entertainment and educational applications; electronic video-conferencing; broadcast applications for news, weather, and sports; and CD-ROM and Web graphics.
Visual Arts & Design. Computer graphics applications for graphic design, industrial design, advertising, and interior design; standards based on design principles relating to color, proportion, placement, and orientation of visual elements; image manipulation and distortion for special effects; systems for computer artists involved in drawing, painting, environmental installations, performance, and interactive multi-image systems; computer animation in film, television, advertising, entertainment, education, and research; and digital design of typography.