People are NSFs most important product. At NSF, linking research and learning is our highest priority, and the people involved in our projects represent both the focus of investment and our most important product. Across the Foundations programs, NSF provides direct support for almost 200,000 people, including teachers, students, researchers, post-doctorates, and trainees. Support for programs specifically addressing NSFs Strategic Goal of People A diverse, internationally competitive and globally-engaged workforce of scientists, engineers and well-prepared citizens totals $1,002 million in FY 2002, an increase of nearly 13 percent over FY 2001 (H-1B Nonimmigrant Petitioner Receipts will increase total support to over $1,146 million).
Support by Level of Education
(Millions of Dollars)
Totals may not add due to rounding.
NSFs investments in ideas and tools also create investments in people. Education is an integral component of all research projects as the skills and training needed for the next generation of scientists, engineers, and technologists are provided within the context of the research experience. The Foundation places a high priority on formal and informal science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education at all levels preK-12, undergraduate and graduate, professional, and public science literacy that engages people of all ages in life-long learning. NSF activities are also aimed at enhancing the diversity of the science and engineering workforce and increasing participation and achievement of underrepresented groups, with special attention paid to development of those who are beginning careers in science and engineering. NSF programs are intended to increase opportunities for all students to learn mathematics and science, prepare for and complete higher education, join the workforce as competent and contributing members, and become well-informed, science-literate citizens of the United States. The rapid globalization of science and technology also provides expanded opportunities for NSF-supported U.S. researchers to train internationally.
The FY 2002 NSF Request for PreK-12 programs is $363.02 million, an increase of $89.69 million or nearly 33 percent over FY 2001.
The FY 2002 Request for programs to improve undergraduate education is $229.7 million, $3.19 million less than the FY 2001 Request. The decrease is due to the completion of two Engineering Education Coalition Programs. Highlights in FY 2002 include:
Graduate & Professional Education
The FY 2002 Request for graduate and professional programs totals $320.53 million, an increase of $36.55 million over FY 2001.
The FY 2002 Budget Request for the activities below is $88.95 million, a decrease of $9.18 million with phasing out of the Partnerships for Innovation program.
FY 2002 Performance Goal for People
The following table summarizes NSFs FY 2002 Performance Goal for People. For additional information, see the FY 2002 Performance Plan.
FY 2002 Performance Goals for People
1 These performance goals are stated in the alternate form provided for in GPRA legislation.
In order to build capacity in schools and school districts to implement science and mathematics standards-based instruction, the New Jersey Statewide Systemic Initiative (NJ SSI) has organized seven regional centers and collaborating specialty sites with institutions of higher education and professional organizations. The specialty sitesinstitutions or organizations that provide special expertise, such as curriculum implementation, technology, parental involvement, and equityare assisting with the systemwide scale-up. In coordination with the regional centers, the specialty sites have developed programs focused on reaching teachers, schools or districts that have not previously been involved with the NJ SSI. The NJ SSI has furthered professional development for teachers in mathematics in 317 or 95% of the 332 participating schools for three years or more and in science in 311 or 94% of the schools.
Solving a Murder: Students participating in the NSF-supported Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site in Rapid Prototyping at the Milwaukee School of Engineering helped solve a local murder case that had been unsolved for two years. By developing a technique for creating a facial image from a skull, police were able to identify the victim which lead to apprehension of the perpetrator. The FBI is now interested in working with the School to develop advanced forensic techniques based on the method.
The World We Create, an exhibit at the Louisville Science Center, features 40 hands-on science activities and over 400 graphic panels highlighting science careers, inventors, and problem-solving strategies. Developed with direct participation of private sector partners, the exhibit both serves visitors to the Center and reaches out across the State of Kentucky. Exhibit experiences encourage teamwork and cooperative learning, and focus on physical science, engineering, and mathematics. Since opening in June 1997, the exhibit and associated programs have reached almost 1.5 million visitors in this rural state of only four million. Twelve science demonstrations, 30 inquiry-based gallery activities, a training video for staff and volunteers, a Teachers Guide, a Family Guide, an Inventor Book, and four in-depth curriculum guides have been prototyped, tested, and revised to enhance and extend the interactive exhibits.
Antarctic Integrative Biology Course. This month-long, international, advanced-level training course is taught in Antarctica at the Crary Science and Engineering Center, McMurdo Station, Antarctica. The goal is to introduce both graduate students and faculty to interdisciplinary modes of research through the study of the unique characteristics of Antarctic marine organisms that allow them to succeed in such extreme environments. The course includes lectures emphasizing physiological, biochemical, and molecular adaptations as well as laboratory investigations and field work in the nearby marine and terrestrial environments. The course attracts an extremely competitive group of students and scientists and introduces new researchers to Antarctica. The participants for January 2000 included 15 graduate students, five postdocs, and five faculty. Of these, 14 were from the U.S. and 11 from other countries.
Project Increases Participation of Women in Computer Science Education and Career Paths. NSF supports activities in computer and information science and engineering designed to expand opportunities for women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. Among its most successful projects is the Distributed Mentor Project (DMP) from the Computer Research Association. A longitudinal evaluation by the University of Wisconsin shows the DMP to be spectacularly successful at meeting its primary goal of increasing the number of women entering graduate school in Computer Science and Engineering (CS&E). Of the DMP participants about 25 women a year over 50% were enrolled in graduate or professional school the year following their graduation. This compares to results of a 1994 Baccalaureate & Beyond study which found that 29% of men and 3% of women entered graduate or professional school within one year of graduation. Both studies focused only on graduates with GPAs greater than or equal to 3.5.
Research on the Matanuska Glacier: Augustana College is a Research Experience for Undergraduates award site which allows undergraduate students to conduct research for six weeks on the Matanuska Glacier, a large valley glacier in south central Alaska. Students participate in field work that involves collecting water samples, maintaining equipment, downloading data, filtering water for suspended sediment, and tabulating data. Students complete their undergraduate thesis projects at their home institutions and present their results at a national meeting.
Summer Internships Abroad: Summer Institute in Japan for American Graduate Students in Science and Engineering and the Research Experience Fellowships for Young Foreign Researchers provide opportunities for U.S. graduate students in science and engineering to participate in summer programs in Asia. Since their start in Japan in 1990 and in Korea in 1995, the programs have enabled a total of 756 American graduate students to gain first-hand experience in a Japanese, Korean or Taiwanese research laboratory. In addition to a research internship, these programs provide introductory foreign language training and exposure to science and science-policy infrastructure. The goals of the program are to introducing them to Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese science and engineering research laboratories and to initiate personal relationships that will better enable students to collaborate with foreign counterparts in the future. A long-term goal of the program is to enable the U.S. to gain maximum benefit from international scientific and technical interactions.
The Quarknet program partners high school physics teachers and their students with particle physics research groups at 60 U.S. universities and laboratories. It is also associated with the collider experiments at FermiLab. Students are learning fundamental physics, investigating particle physics through live, online data and collaborating with students worldwide. QuarkNet is a new program just beginning its second year. Twenty-three lead teachers completed eight-week research appointments last year; 25 teachers hold appointments this year. All have attended a one-week orientation workshop at FermiLab. The QuarkNet program is having a broad impact as well, with 107 teachers attending three-week workshops offered by last years lead teachers. One of the successes of QuarkNet is building the confidence of teachers to the point where they are making substantial contributions to the research enterprise.
The Administrators Working for Change project developed and validated a year-long course (equivalent to two graduate level courses) for K-12 administrators. The courses were shown to improve administrators ability (a) to communicate the mathematics that students should be taught; (b) to better analyze mathematics instruction that they observed, and (c) to communicate the essential elements of mathematics reform. The courses are being used by NSF Local Systemic Change projects and are being made available to universities and school districts.
Electronic Classrooms. Prof. Gregory Abowd, Georgia Institute of Technology, a CAREER awardee, is developing a prototype classroom environment named eClass which captures the rich interaction that occurs in a typical university lecture. Lectures are captured on an electronic whiteboard or on top of prepared slides using ZenPad, a Java applet. The electronic annotations, audio, video, and even Web browser activity are all automatically recorded and time-stamped. After the lecture, ZenPad automatically weaves the captured events together into a set of standard HTML Web pages. The need for note taking is reduced and students can focus their energies on engaging in and better understanding of the classroom discussion. A collaborative discussion space, CoWeb, has also been incorporated so that discussions are now anchored to relevant parts of the lecture, and the lecture extends into other activities outside of the classroom experience.
Virtual Community Links Critically Ill and Children with Disabilities: NSFs Collaborative Research on Learning Technologies Program, supports the Center for Innovative Learning Technologies (CILT), whose research activities address the assessment and improvement of mathematics and learningskills through the development of collaborations between highly interdisciplinary teams of individuals and organizations and the development and diffusion of leading-edge technologies into learning environments. As one of its activities, CILT launched PatchWorx, a website connecting critically ill and children with disabilities all over the world in an online community. The site (http://www.patchworx.org) enables critically ill youngsters to share hopes and experiences through chatrooms, discussion boards, email and interactive activities.
Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSECs). In FY 2000, the MRSECs supported K-12 science and engineering outreach activities that reached about 360 teachers and 18,000 students. The MRSEC at Northwestern University, directed by Robert P.H. Chang, developed the Materials World Modules (MWM) program, which provides inquiry-based educational modules on materials topics to supplement the middle and high school science and math curricula. The modules have been used by over 9,000 teachers in 14 states and in U.S. Army base schools in nine foreign countries. An advanced, Internet-based version of the current MWM program that meets the national science standards is currently being developed with co-support from NSF. (http://mrcemis.ms.northwestern.edu/mrsec/education/edu_intro.htm)
Research on Speech Used at School for the Hearing Impaired. At the University of Colorado, Boulder, NSF-supported researchers are working on a 3-D animated conversational agent, BALDI, that combines speech recognition, understanding, and synthesis with facial animation technologies to converse with students. BALDI helps children who are profoundly deaf to develop their conversational skills by showing them how to understand and produce spoken language. In addition to helping students accurately produce expressive speech, the interactive systems curriculum development software lets teachers and students customize classwork. This project is the first to integrate emerging language technologies to create an animated conversational agent, and to apply this agent to learning and language training. Results from this project can be incorporated into animated conversational agents for non-hearing impaired applications such as learning new languages, e.g., English as a Second Language. They may also be useful for diagnosing or treating speech and reading disorders.
University Addresses the Transition from High School to College. In an effort to increase minority student participation in research, Florida A&M University, under a NSF Minority Institutional Infrastructure Program award, has created an outreach effort that has lead to a significant increase in student enrollment. The project targeted pre-college students from local and regional schools and community organizations with outreach activities to encourage students to get involved in computing as a career. Activities included roadshow presentations such as Introduction to Voice Activated Computer Systems, Introduction to Robots, and Careers in Computing.
Assessing Genetic Damage. The Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) at Cornell University focuses on supporting research opportunities for underrepresented minorities who have expressed interest in conducting research in applied mathematics or related fields. These research experiences are offered to undergraduate students who have had no prior research experiences and who have completed their sophomore or junior year of college in a mathematically related discipline. One of the many successes of this program was that a group of students developed a mathematical model for assessing genetic damage on HIV populations after anti-retroviral therapy.
Numbers of People Involved in NSF Activities
Nearly 200,000 people are directly involved in NSF programs and activities, receiving salaries, stipends, or participant support. In addition, NSF programs indirectly impact many millions of people. These programs reach PreK-12 students, PreK-12 teachers, the general public and researchers through activities including workshops; informal science activities such as museums, television, videos, and journals; outreach efforts; and dissemination of improved curriculum and teaching methods.
1 Does not include individuals to be funded through H-1B Nonimmigrant Petitioner Receipts in FY 2001 and FY 2002.
Senior Researchers include scientists, mathematicians, engineers, and educators receiving funding through NSF awards. These include both researchers who are principal or co-principal investigators on research and education projects, and researchers working at NSF-supported centers and facilities.
Other Professionals are individuals who may or may not hold doctoral degrees or its equivalent, who are considered professionals, but are not reported as senior researchers, postdoctoral associates, or students. Examples are technicians, systems experts, etc.
Postdoctoral Associates are individuals who have received Ph.D., M.D., D.Sc., or equivalent degrees less than five years ago, and who are not members of the faculty of the performing institution. Most of these postdoctoral associates are supported through funds included in research projects, centers or facilities awards. The balance are recipients of postdoctoral fellowships.
Graduate Students include students compensated from NSF grant funds. Up to 20 percent of these students receive support through programs such as the NSF Graduate Fellowships, Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training Program (IGERT), and NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education. The balance assists senior researchers or postdoctoral associates in performing research, and are supported through funds included in research projects, centers, or facilities awards. NSF provides support for approximately five percent of the science and engineering graduate students in the U.S.
Undergraduate Students include students enrolled in technical colleges or baccalaureate programs compensated from NSF grant funds. They may either be assisting senior researchers or postdoctoral associates in performing research, or participating in NSF programs specifically aimed at undergraduate students, such as Research Experiences for Undergraduates or the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation.
K-12 Students are those attending elementary, middle, and secondary schools. They are supported through program components that directly engage students in science and mathematics experiences such as teacher and student development projects.
K-12 Teachers include teachers at elementary, middle, and secondary schools. These individuals actively participate in intensive professional development experiences in sciences and mathematics.
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